1887

Abstract

To determine the prevalence of cervical genotypes in Iran for the first time and their association with three clinical symptoms/signs, i.e. abnormal vaginal discharge, lower abdominal pain (LAP) and swab-induced bleeding, and patient age, 620 cervical specimens were obtained from women with symptomatic genital infection referred to gynaecological clinics and 108 -positive specimens were genotyped by direct gene PCR-RFLP analysis. Eight genotypes were identified. The most prevalent genotype was E (31.5 %), followed by F (23.1 %), D/Da (13 %), K (9.2 %), I (8.3 %), G (7.5 %), H (5.5 %) and J (1.9 %). For analysing the association of genotypes with symptoms/signs and age, -values were separately evaluated for genogroups and genotypes. The analysis of genogroups showed that women infected with genogroup F/G manifested the symptom of LAP significantly more often than those infected with the other genogroups (=0.02), while the analysis of genotypes revealed that women infected with genotype F reported LAP slightly more often than women infected with the other genotypes (=0.08). No significant correlation between genogroups and age was found; however, genotype E was somewhat less prevalent among women aged 25–34 years than among other age groups (=0.08).

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.016717-0
2010-09-01
2019-11-13
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/59/9/1023.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.016717-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Bakhtiari, A. & Firoozjahi, A. ( 2007; ). Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women attending health centres in Babol: prevalence and risk factors. East Mediterr Health J 13, 1124–1131.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Barnes, R. C., Rompalo, A. M. & Stamm, W. E. ( 1987; ). Comparison of Chlamydia trachomatis serovars causing rectal and cervical infection. J Infect Dis 156, 953–958.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Chamani-Tabriz, L., Tehrani, M. J., Akhondi, M. M., Mosavi-Jarrahi, A., Zeraati, H., Ghasemi, J., Asgari, S., Kokab, A. & Eley, A. R. ( 2007; ). Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence in Iranian women attending obstetrics and gynaecology clinics. Pak J Biol Sci 10, 4490–4494.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Eckert, L. O., Suchland, R. J., Hawes, S. E. & Stamm, W. E. ( 2000; ). Quantitative Chlamydia trachomatis cultures: correlation of chlamydial inclusion-forming units with serovar, age, sex, and race. J Infect Dis 182, 540–544.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Gao, X., Chen, X. S., Yin, Y. P., Zhong, M. Y., Shi, M. Q., Wei, W. H., Chen, Q., Peeling, R. W. & Mabey, D. ( 2007; ). Distribution study of Chlamydia trachomatis serovars among high-risk women in China performed using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism genotyping. J Clin Microbiol 45, 1185–1189.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Geisler, W. M., Suchland, R. J., Whittington, W. L. & Stamm, W. E. ( 2003; ). The relationship of serovars to clinical manifestation of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Sex Transm Dis 30, 160–165.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Ghanaat, J., Afshari, J. T., Ghazvini, K. & Malvandi, M. ( 2008; ). Prevalence of genital Chlamydia in Iranian males with urethritis attending clinics in Mashhad. East Mediterr Health J 14, 1333–1337.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Hashemi, F. B., Pourakbari, B. & Yazdi, J. Z. ( 2007; ). Frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis in women with cervicitis in Tehran, Iran. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol 2007, 67014
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Hsu, M. C., Tsai, P. Y., Chen, K. T., Li, L. H., Chiang, C. C., Tsai, J. J., Ke, L. Y., Chen, H. Y. & Li, S. Y. ( 2006; ). Genotyping of Chlamydia trachomatis from clinical specimens in Taiwan. J Med Microbiol 55, 301–308.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Lan, J., Walboomers, J. M., Roosendaal, R., van Doornum, G. J., MacLaren, D. M., Meijer, C. J. & van den Brule, A. J. ( 1993; ). Direct detection and genotyping of Chlamydia trachomatis in cervical scrapes by using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. J Clin Microbiol 31, 1060–1065.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Molano, M., Meijer, C. J. L. M., Weiderpass, E., Arslan, A., Posso, H., Franceschi, S., Ronderos, M., Muñoz, N. & van den Brule, A. J. C. ( 2005; ). The natural course of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in asymptomatic Colombian women: a 5-year follow-up study. J Infect Dis 191, 907–916.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Morré, S. A., Ossewaarde, J. M., Lan, J., van Doornum, G. J. J., Walboomers, J. M. M., Maclaren, D. M., Meijer, C. J. L. M. & van den Brule, A. J. C. ( 1998; ). Serotyping and genotyping of genital Chlamydia trachomatis isolates reveal variants of serovars Ba, G, and J as confirmed by omp1 nucleotide sequence analysis. J Clin Microbiol 36, 345–351.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Morré, S. A., Rozendaal, L., van Valkengoed, I. G. M., Boeke, A. J. P., van Voorst Vader, P. C., Schirm, J., de Blok, S., van den Hoek, J. A., van Doornum, G. J. & other authors ( 2000; ). Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis serovars in men and women with a symptomatic or asymptomatic infection: an association with clinical manifestations? J Clin Microbiol 38, 2292–2296.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Nazer, M., Nowroozi, J., Mirsalehian, A., Kazemi, B., Mousavi, T. & Mehdizadeh, A. ( 2008; ). Determination of asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infections by omp1 gene based-PCR. Yakhteh Med J 10, 41–46.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Ngandjio, A., Clerc, M., Fonkoua, M. C., Thonnon, J., Lunel, F., Bebear, C., Bianchi, A. & De Barbeyrac, B. ( 2004; ). Restriction endonuclease patterns of the omp1 gene of reference Chlamydia trachomatis strains and characterization of isolates from Cameroonian students. J Med Microbiol 53, 47–50.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Persson, K. & Osser, S. ( 1993; ). Lack of evidence of a relationship between genital symptoms, cervicitis and salpingitis and different serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 12, 195–199.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Rodriguez, P., Vekris, A., de Barbeyrac, B., Dutilh, B., Bonnet, J. & Bebear, C. ( 1991; ). Typing of Chlamydia trachomatis by restriction endonuclease analysis of the amplified major outer membrane protein gene. J Clin Microbiol 29, 1132–1136.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Rodriguez, P., De Barbeyrac, B., Persson, K., Dutilh, B. & Bebear, C. ( 1993; ). Evaluation of molecular typing for epidemiological study of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infections. J Clin Microbiol 31, 2238–2240.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Samarbaf-Zadeh, A., Razi, M. T. & Kelishadi, M. ( 2007; ). Prevalence of C. trachomatis infection among Ahvaz females with vaginal discharge. Iran J Fertil Steril 1, 19–22.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Sturm-Ramirez, K., Brumblay, H., Diop, K., Guèye-Ndiaye, A., Sankalé, J. L., Thior, I., N'Doye, I., Hsieh, C. C., Mboup, S. & Kanki, P. J. ( 2000; ). Molecular epidemiology of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in high-risk women in Senegal, West Africa. J Clin Microbiol 38, 138–145.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. van de Laar, M. J. W., Lan, J., van Duynhoven, Y. T. H. P., Fennema, J. S. A., Ossewaarde, J. M., Van Den Brule, A. J. C., Van Doornum, G. J. J., Coutinho, R. A. & van den Hoek, J. A. R. ( 1996; ). Differences in clinical manifestations of genital chlamydial infections related to serovars. Genitourin Med 72, 261–265.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. van Duynhoven, Y. T., Ossewaarde, J. M., Derksen-Nawrocki, R. P., van der Meijden, W. I. & Van De Laar, M. J. ( 1998; ). Chlamydia trachomatis genotypes: correlation with clinical manifestations of infection and patients’ characteristics. Clin Infect Dis 26, 314–322.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. WHO ( 2001; ). Global prevalence and incidence of selected curable sexually transmitted infection: overview and estimates. WHO/HIV_AIDS/2001.02. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  24. Workowski, K. A., Stevens, C. E., Suchland, R. J., Holmes, K. K., Eschenbach, D. A., Pettinger, M. B. & Stamm, W. E. ( 1994; ). Clinical manifestation of genital infection due to Chlamydia trachomatis in women: differences related to serovars. Clin Infect Dis 19, 756–760.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Yuan, Y., Zhang, Y. X., Watkins, N. G. & Caldwell, H. D. ( 1989; ). Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences for the four variable domains of the major outer membrane proteins of the 15 Chlamydia trachomatis serovars. Infect Immun 57, 1040–1049.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.016717-0
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.016717-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error