1887

Abstract

Studies based on the analysis of housekeeping genes indicate that and all species, except for type 13, belong to a single species. This study analysed the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of 23 . strains isolated in different countries from faecal specimens taken from children with diarrhoea. Strains were identified using the VITEK system and typed with rabbit sera obtained against 186 somatic and 53 flagellar antigens and against 45 somatic antigens. Biochemical analysis of these strains showed a typical profile with a defined reaction against both . O179 and . 16 somatic antisera. Agglutination assays for flagellar antigens showed a response against H2 in 7 (30 %) strains, H10 in 2 (9 %) strains, H32 in 12 (52 %) strains and H34 in 2 (9 %) strains, demonstrating 4 serotypes associated with this new somatic antigen 64474. A serum against one of these . strains (64474) was prepared. Absorption assays of . 16 and . 64474 antisera with O179 antigen removed the agglutination response against this O179 antigen completely, while the agglutination titres against both . 16 and 64474 remained the same. Four (17 %) . strains showed antimicrobial resistance to piperacillin only, one (4 %) to piperacillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, one (4 %) to ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin and piperacillin, and two (9 %) strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, piperacillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. With regards to PCR assays, one (4 %) of the strains was positive for gene , one (4 %) for , two (9 %) for , one (4 %) for , two (9 %) for and three (13 %) for . The gene cluster in the strains was analysed by RFLP and compared with the gene cluster obtained from 16. The -RFLP patterns for all 23 . strains were similar to those obtained for . 16. The results from PCR tests to detect genes (encoding O unit flippase) and (encoding polymerase) belonging to a cluster related to the biosynthesis of the 16-specific O antigen were positive in 21 (91 %) and 22 (96 %) of the strains, respectively. PCR assays to detect . virulence genes were also performed. These assays detected enterotoxigenic . genes in 12 of the strains (52 %), in 4 (17 %), 1 in 6 (26 %), 1 in 1 (4 %), 3 in 3 (13 %), 13 in 9 (39 %) and 14 in 5 (22 %) of the strains. Results from the PFGE analyses confirmed the wide geographical distribution of these strains suggesting that 64474 : H2, 64474 : H10, 64474 : H32 and 64474 : H34 are new serotypes of . strains with a defined virulence capacity, and share a common O antigen with 16.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.015602-0
2010-04-01
2019-10-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/59/4/453.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.015602-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Amábile-Cuevas, C. F., Arredondo-García, J. L.,Cruz, A. & Rosas, I. ( 2010; ). Fluoroquinolone resistancein clinical and environmental isolates of Escherichia coli in MexicoCity. J Appl Microbiol 108, 158–162.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bekal, S., Brousseau, R., Masson, L., Prefontaine, G., Fairbrother,J. & Harel, J. ( 2003; ). Rapid identification of Escherichia coli pathotypes by virulence gene detection with DNA microarrays. J Clin Microbiol 41, 2113–2125.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Barrow, G. I. & Feltham, R. K. A. ( 1993; ). Cowan and Steel's Manual for the Identification of Medical Bacteria, 3rd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  4. Chapman, P. A., Siddons, C. A., Gerdan Malo, A. T. & Harkin,M. A. ( 1997; ). A 1-year study of Escherichia coli O157 in cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry. Epidemiol Infect 119, 245–250.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Coimbra, R. S., Grimont, F. & Grimont, P. A. D. ( 1999; ). Identification of Shigella serotypes byrestriction of amplified O-antigen gene cluster. Res Microbiol 150, 543–553.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Coimbra, R. S., Grimont, F., Lenormand, P., Burguière,P., Beutin, L. & Grimont, P. A. D. ( 2000; ). Identificationof Escherichia coli O-serogroups by restriction of the amplifiedO-antigen gene cluster (rfb-RFLP). Res Microbiol 151, 639–654.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Cravioto, A., Reyes, R. E., Trujillo, F., Uribe, F., Navarro,A., De La Roca, J. M., Hernández, J. M., Pérez, G. & Vázquez,V. ( 1990; ). Risk of diarrhea during the first yearof life associated with initial and subsequent colonization by specific enteropathogens. Am J Epidemiol 131, 886–904.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Davidson, G., Barnes, G., Bass, D., Cohen, M., Fasano, A., Fontaine,O. & Guandalini, S. ( 2002; ). Infectious diarrheain children: working group report of the First World Congress of PediatricGastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. J Pediatr GastroenterolNutr 35, S143–S150.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. ESNC–IAMS ( 1958; ). Supplement tothe third report on the Shigella group. Int Bull BacteriolNomencl Taxon 8, 93–95.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Escobar-Páramo, P., Giudicelli, C., Parsot, C. &Denamur, E. ( 2003; ). The evolutionary history of Shigella and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli revised. J Mol Evol 57, 140–148.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Estrada-García, T., Cerna, J. F., Pacheco-Gil, L., Velázquez,R. F., Ochoa, T. J., Torres, J. & DuPont, H. L. ( 2005; ). Drug-resistant diarrheogenic Escherichia coli, Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis 11, 1306–1308.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Ewing, W. H. ( 1986; ). Edwards andEwing's Identification of Enterobacteriaceae. New York:Elsevier.
  13. Goering, R. V. ( 1993; ). Molecular epidemiologyof nosocomial infection: analysis of chromosomal restriction fragment patternsby pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 14, 595–600.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Gogarten, J. P., Doolittle, W. F. & Lawrence, J. G. ( 2002; ). Prokaryotic evolution in light of gene transfer. Mol Biol Evol 19, 2226–2238.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Hancock, D. D., Besser, T. E., Rice, D. H., Herriott, D. E. &Tarr, P. I. ( 1997; ). A longitudinal study of Escherichiacoli O157 in fourteen cattle herds. Epidemiol Infect 118, 193–195.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Heuzenroeder, M. W., Elliot, T. R., Thomas, C. J., Halter, R. &Manning, P. A. ( 1990; ). A new fimbrial type (PCFO9)on enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli O9 : H LT+ isolated from a case of infant diarrhea in centralAustralia. FEMS Microbiol Lett 66, 55–60.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Jonsson, K. H. M., Weintraub, A. & Widmalm, G. ( 2006; ). Structural studies of the O-antigenic polysaccharides from Shigella dysenteriae type 3 and Escherichia coli O124, a reinvestigation. Carbohydr Res 341, 2986–2989.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Kotloff, K. L., Winickoff, J. P., Ivanoff, B., Clemens, J. D.,Swerdlow, D. L., Sansonetti, P. J., Adak, G. K. & Levine, M. M. ( 1999; ). Global burden of Shigella infections: implicationsfor vaccine development and implementation of control strategies. Bull World Health Organ 77, 651–666.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Landersjö, C., Weintraub, A. & Widmalm, G. ( 1996; ). Structure determination of the O-antigen polysaccharidefrom the enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) O143 bycomponent analysis and NMR spectroscopy. Carbohydr Res 291, 209–216.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Li, Y., Cao, B., Liu, B., Liu, D., Gao, Q., Peng, X., Wu, J.,Bastin, D. A., Feng, L. & Wang, L. ( 2009; ). Moleculardetection of all 34 distinct O-antigen forms of Shigella. J Med Microbiol 58, 69–81.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Linnerborg, M., Wollin, R. & Widmalm, G. ( 1997; ). Structural studies of the O-antigenic polysaccharide from Escherichia coli O167. Eur J Biochem 246, 565–573.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Liu, B., Senchenkova, S. N., Feng, L., Perepelov, A. V., Xu,T., Shevelev, S. D., Zhu, Y., Shashkov, A. S., Zou, M. & other authors ( 2006; ). Structural and molecular characterizationof Shigella boydii type 16 O antigen. Gene 380, 46–53.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Liu, B., Knirel, Y. A., Feng, L., Perepelov, A. V., Senchenkova,S. N., Wang, Q., Reeves, P. R. & Wang, L. ( 2008; ). Structure and genetics of Shigella O antigens. FEMSMicrobiol Rev 32, 627–653.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Matushek, M. G., Bonten, M. J. M. & Hayden, M. K. ( 1996; ). Rapid preparation of bacterial DNA for pulsed-fieldgel electrophoresis. J Clin Microbiol 34, 2598–2600.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Ménard, R., Prévost, M. C., Gounon, P., Sansonetti,P. & Dehio, C. ( 1996; ). The secreted Ipa complexof Shigella flexneri promotes entry into mammalian cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93, 1254–1258.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Nataro, J. P. & Kaper, J. B. ( 1998; ). Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. Clin Microbiol Rev 11, 142–201.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Ørskov, F. & Ørskov, I. ( 1984; ). Serotyping of Escherichia coli. In Methods in Microbiology, vol. 14, pp. 43–112. Edited by T. Bergan. London: Academic Press.
  28. Paniagua, M., Espinoza, F., Ringman, M., Reizenstein, E., Svennerholm,A. M. & Hallander, H. ( 1997; ). Analysis of incidenceof infection with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in a prospectivecohort study of infant diarrhea in Nicaragua. J Clin Microbiol 35, 1404–1410.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Peng, J., Yang, J. & Jin, Q. ( 2009; ). The molecular evolutionary history of Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli. Infect Genet Evol 9, 147–152.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Perepelov, A. V., Wang, Q., Senchenkova, S. N., Shevelev, S.D., Zhao, G., Shashkov, A. S., Feng, L., Knirel, Y. A. & Wang, L. ( 2006; ). Structure of a teichoic acid-like O-polysaccharideof Escherichia coli O29. Carbohydr Res 341, 2176–2180.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Perepelov, A. V., Liu, B., Senchenkova, S. N., Shashkov, A.S., Feng, L., Knirel, Y. A. & Wang, L. ( 2008a; ).Structure of the O-polysaccharide of Escherichia coli O112ab containingL-iduronic acid. Carbohydr Res 343, 571–575.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Perepelov, A. V., Weintraub, A., Liu, B., Senchenkova, S. N.,Shashkov, A. S., Feng, L., Wang, L., Widmalm, G. & Knirel, Y. A. ( 2008b; ). The O-polysaccharide of Escherichia coliO112ac has the same structure as that of Shigella dysenteriae type2 but is devoid of O-acetylation: a revision of the S. dysenteriaetype 2 O-polysaccharide structure. Carbohydr Res 343, 977–981.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Pupo, G. M., Lan, R. & Reeves, P. R. ( 2000; ). Multiple independent origins of Shigella clones of Escherichia coli and convergent evolution of many of their characteristics. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97, 10567–10572.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Qadri, F., Das, S. K., Faruque, A. S., Fuchs, G. J., Albert,M. J., Sack, R. B. & Svennerholm, A.-M. ( 2000; ).Prevalence of toxin types and colonization factors in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolated during a 2-year period from diarrheal patientsin Bangladesh. J Clin Microbiol 38, 27–31.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Qadri, F., Svennerholm, A.-M., Faruque, A. S. G. & Sack,R. B. ( 2005; ). Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in developing countries: epidemiology, microbiology, clinical features,treatment, and prevention. Clin Microbiol Rev 18, 465–483.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Raetz, C. R. H. & Whitfield, C. ( 2002; ). Lipopolysaccharide endotoxins. Annu Rev Biochem 71, 635–700.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Reid, S. D., Herbelin, C. J., Bumbaugh, A. C., Selander, R.K. & Whittam, T. S. ( 2000; ). Parallel evolutionof virulence in pathogenic Escherichia coli. Nature 406, 64–67.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Rolland, K., Lambert-Zechovsky, N., Picard, B. & Denamur,E. ( 1998; ). Shigella and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli strains are derived from distinct ancestral strainsof E. coli. Microbiology 144, 2667–2672.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Scheutz, F., Cheasty, T., Woodward, D. & Smith, H. R. ( 2004; ). Designation of O174 and O175 to temporary O groupsOX3 and OX7, and six new E. coli O groups that include verocytotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC): O176, O177, O178, O179, O180 and O181. APMIS 112, 569–584.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Schubert, S., Darlu, P., Clermont, O., Wieser, A., Magistro,G., Hoffmann, C., Weinert, K., Tenaillon, O., Matic, I. & Denamur, E. ( 2009; ). Role of intraspecies recombination in thespread of pathogenicity islands within the Escherichia coli species. PLoS Pathog 5, e1000257 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Schultsz, C., Pool, G. J., van Ketel, R., de Wever, B., Speelman,P. & Dankert, J. ( 1994; ). Detection of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in stool samples by using nonradioactively labeled oligonucleotideDNA probes and PCR. J Clin Microbiol 32, 2393–2397.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Sjöling, A., Wiklund, G., Savarino, S. J., Cohen, D. I. &Svennerholm, M.-A. ( 2007; ). Comparative analyses ofphenotypic and genotypic methods for detection of enterotoxigenic Escherichiacoli toxins and colonization factors. J Clin Microbiol 45, 3295–3301.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Tominaga, A., Lan, R. & Reeves, P. R. ( 2005; ). Evolutionary changes of the flhDC flagellar masteroperon in Shigella strains. J Bacteriol 187, 4295–4302.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Venkatesan, M. M., Goldberg, M. B., Rose, D. J., Grotbeck, E.J., Burland, V. & Blattner, F. R. ( 2001; ). CompleteDNA sequence and analysis of the large virulence plasmid of Shigella flexneri. Infect Immun 69, 3271–3285.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Wang, L. & Reeves, P. R. ( 1998; ).Organization of Escherichia coli O157 O antigen gene cluster andidentification of its specific genes. Infect Immun 66, 3545–3551.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.015602-0
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.015602-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error