1887

Abstract

Twenty genes encoding enterotoxin and enterotoxin-like proteins have been described in strains. Five of these occur commonly in the enterotoxin gene cluster (: , , , and ). In the intergenic region, two pseudogenes, and , can be present or an additional gene designated or a variant . Whilst frequencies of loci bearing pseudogenes () or the gene () have been reported, the distinction between bearing and -bearing () loci has rarely been made. A PCR-RFLP procedure involving cleavage of the intergenic region by restriction endonuclease I or I was developed that allowed differentiation of and loci. In addition, PCR primers were designed to yield a 203 bp amplimer for sequencing of a or intragenic region, which encompassed ten signature nucleotide differences. A total of 43 human nasal isolates and 53 bovine, ovine, caprine, leporine and gallinaceous isolates were typed and typed. None of the animal isolates was of type III. A total of 12 out of 17 human nasal isolates were of type III, the other 5 being type I. On the basis of representative multilocus sequence typing, type III/ strains belonged to CC30. Human nasal isolates bearing an locus were distributed evenly across types I, II and III. Only two nasal isolates had an locus. All 14 type IV isolates, only 1 of which was of human origin, possessed an locus. The IV nasal isolate was fusidic acid sensitive and was found to be ST123 (CC121). There were strong associations between bovine, leporine and gallinaceous clonal types and locus types. The PCR-RFLP procedure was used to screen an additional 45 isolates from dogs, cats, rats, pigs and horses for locus types. Of these, 33 were . Six equine isolates were . One canine and three porcine isolates possessed pseudogenes and . One porcine and one canine isolate each had the gene. Putative relationships between disease-causing propensity and egc type need (re-)evaluation.

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2009-01-01
2019-11-12
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