O1 is the aetiological agent of the severe diarrhoeal disease cholera. Annually, there are an estimated 1–4 million cholera cases worldwide and over 140 000 deaths. The primary mode of disease transmission is through the consumption of water or food contaminated with the bacterium. Although cholera patients can be treated effectively using rehydration therapy, the disease remains a major scourge in areas with limited access to clean water and proper sanitation. Its continued prevalence highlights the failure of socioeconomic policies leading to wealth disparities, fragile and dated public infrastructure, and lack of appropriate health surveillance.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Harris JB, LaRocque RC, Qadri F, Ryan ET, Calderwood SB. Cholera. Lancet 2012; 379:2466–2476 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Clemens JD, Nair GB, Ahmed T, Qadri F, Holmgren J. Cholera. Lancet 2017; 390:1539–1549 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Merrell DS, Butler SM, Qadri F, Dolganov NA, Alam A. Host-induced epidemic spread of the cholera bacterium. Nature 2002; 417:642–645 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Das B, Verma J, Kumar P, Ghosh A, Ramamurthy T. Antibiotic resistance in Vibrio cholerae: Understanding the ecology of resistance genes and mechanisms. Vaccine 2020; 38:A83–A92 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Qadri F, Islam T, Clemens JD. Cholera in Yemen - an old foe rearing its ugly head. N Engl J Med 2017; 377:2005–2007 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Sugimoto JD, Koepke AA, Kenah EE, Halloran ME, Chowdhury F. Household transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh. PLOS Negl Trop Dis 2014; 8:11 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Almagro-Moreno S, Pruss K, Taylor RK. Intestinal colonization dynamics of Vibrio cholerae. PLoS Pathog 2015; 11:e1004787 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Rivera-Chávez F, Mekalanos JJ. Cholera toxin promotes pathogen acquisition of host-derived nutrients. Nature 2019; 572:244–248 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Matson JS, Withey JH, DiRita VJ. Regulatory networks controlling Vibrio cholerae virulence gene expression. Infect Immun 2007; 75:5542–5549 [View Article] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Akanda AS, Jutla AS, Colwell RR. Global diarrhoea action plan needs integrated climate-based surveillance. Lancet Glob Health 2014; 2:e69–70 [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error