1887

Abstract

Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical and subtropical disease caused by over 20 protozoan species.

Treatment of this complex disease with traditional synthetic drugs is a major challenge worldwide. Natural constituents are unique candidates for future therapeutic development.

This study aimed to assess the anti-leishmanial effect of the extract, and its fractions compared to the standard drug (Glucantime, MA) in a murine model and explore the mechanism of action.

Footpads of BALB/c mice were infected with stationary phase promastigotes and treated topically and intraperitoneally with extract, its fractions, or Glucantime, 4 weeks post-infection. The extract and fractions were prepared using the Soxhlet apparatus with chloroform followed by the column procedure.

The crude extract significantly decreased the footpad parasite load and lesion size compared to the untreated control group (<0.05), as revealed by dilution assay, quantitative real-time PCR, and histopathological analyses. The primary mode of action involved an immunomodulatory role towards the Th1 response in the up-regulation of IFN-γ and IL-12 and the suppression of IL-10 gene expression profiling against cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by .

This finding suggests that the extract possesses multiple combinatory effects of diverse bioactive phytochemical compositions that exert its mechanisms of action through agonistic-synergistic interactions. The topical extract formulation could be a suitable and unique candidate for future investigation and pharmacological development. Further studies are crucial to evaluate the therapeutic potentials of the extract alone and in combination with conventional drugs using clinical settings.

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2021-06-11
2022-01-24
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