1887

Abstract

Tuberculosis (TB) control is a challenge, especially in vulnerable populations, such as prisoners.

In prison houses, the transmission of micro-organisms that cause infectious diseases can occur due to the susceptibility and immune compromise of prisoners, and due to the precarious physical conditions of the prison houses. However, strategies such as monitoring by health professionals, can mitigate the transmission of these micro-organisms, as well as, reduce the number of coinfections and antimicrobials resistance.

This study attempted to analyse the dynamics of transmission and the antimicrobial resistance profile of strains obtained from prisoners and to characterize the epidemiological, clinical and laboratory profiles of prisoners diagnosed with TB.

A cross-sectional and retrospective study was conducted with sputum samples collected from 228 distinct prisoners who were treated at the Health Unit located in the Regional Penitentiary of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The antimicrobial resistance profile of the strains was evaluated using the Resazurin Microtiter Assay and the transmission dynamics was investigated using 15- MIRU-VNTR.

Thirty-five patients (15.4 %) were diagnosed with TB, and when a TB/HIV coinfection was assessed, 8.6 % (3/35) of the patients were positive. In addition, all patients with results available for HBV, HCV, syphilis and diabetes mellitus were negative. Based on the genotypic profile, 55.9 % of the clinical isolates were grouped into five groups. One isolate with mono-resistance to isoniazid and two with mono-resistance to streptomycin were found.

The presence of a Health Unit may have influenced the low numbers of TB/HIV, TB/HBV, TB/HCV, TB/syphilis coinfections and TB cases resistant to antimicrobials. Recent transmission can be inferred based on the high percentage of formatting of clusters. This situation stresses the need to improve active and passive detection, the screening of individuals for TB upon entrance into prison for early detection, and the implementation of prophylactic measures to reduce transmission.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.001319
2021-02-08
2021-03-02
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. World Health Organization (WHO) Global tuberculosis report. 2019 1 297
  2. Trajman A, Saraceni V, Durovni B. Sustainable development goals and tuberculosis in Brazil: challenges and potentialities. Cad Saude Publica 2018; 34: 1 4 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. United Nations (UN) Sustainable development goals. 2020
  4. Walmsley R. World prison population list. World Prison Br - Inst Crim Policy Res 2016 1 15
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Paião DSG, Lemos EF, Carbone AdaSS, Sgarbi RVE, Junior AL et al. Impact of mass-screening on tuberculosis incidence in a prospective cohort of Brazilian prisoners. BMC Infect Dis 2016; 16: 1 8 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Brasil Manual de recomendações para o controle da Tuberculose no Brasil. Ministério da Saúde 2019 25 363
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Urrego J, AI K. The impact of ventilation and early diagnosis on tuberculosis transmission in Brazilian prisons. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2015; 93: 739 746
    [Google Scholar]
  8. World Health Organization (WHO) Good Pratices in the prevention and care of tuberculosis and drug-resistant tuberculosis in correctional facilities. 2018
  9. Shah NS, Auld SC, Brust JCM, Mathema B, Ismail N et al. Transmission of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in South Africa. N Engl J Med 2017; 376: 243 253 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Caminero Luna JA, Luna JAC. Update on the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. Rev Clin Esp 2016; 216: 76 84 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Jagielski T, Minias A, van Ingen J, Rastogi N, Brzostek A et al. Methodological and clinical aspects of the molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other mycobacteria. Clin Microbiol Rev 2016; 29: 239 290 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Supply P, Allix C, Lesjean S, Cardoso-Oelemann M, Rüsch-Gerdes S et al. Proposal for standardization of optimized mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem repeat typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Clin Microbiol 2006; 44: 4498 4510 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Valença MS, Scaini JLR, Abileira FS, Gonçalves CV, von Groll A et al. Prevalence of tuberculosis in prisons: risk factors and molecular epidemiology. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2015; 19: 1182 1187 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Brasil Informações penitenciárias - INFOPEN. Departamento Penitenciário Nacional. http://dados.mj.gov.br/dataset/infopen-levantament . 2020
  15. Supply P. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Inst Pasteur Lille 2005; 73:
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Allix-Beguec C, Harmsen D, Weniger T, Supply P, Niemann S. Evaluation and strategy for use of MIRU-VNTRplus, a multifunctional database for online analysis of genotyping data and phylogenetic identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates. J Clin Microbiol 2008; 46: 2692 2699 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Selander RK, Caugant DA, Ochman H, Musser JM, Gilmour MN et al. Methods of multilocus enzyme electrophoresis for bacterial population genetics and systematics. Appl Environ Microbiol 1986; 51: 873 884 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Sola C, Filliol I, Legrand E, Lesjean S, Locht C et al. Genotyping of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex using MIRUs: association with VNTR and spoligotyping for molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics. Infect Genet Evol 2003; 3: 125 133 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Hunter PR, Gaston MA. Numerical index of the discriminatory ability of typing systems: an application of Simpson's index of diversity. J Clin Microbiol 1988; 26: 2465 2466 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Palomino J-C, Martin A, Camacho M, Guerra H, Swings J et al. Resazurin microtiter assay plate: simple and inexpensive method for detection of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2002; 46: 2720 2722 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Anandi Martin JCP. Procedure manual: resazurin microtiter assay. 2009 1 17
  22. Dara M, Acosta CD, Melchers NVSV, Al-Darraji HAA, Chorgoliani D et al. Tuberculosis control in prisons: current situation and research gaps. Int J Infect Dis 2015; 32: 111 117 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Mabud TS, AI K, Basu S, Walter KS et al. Evaluating strategies for control of tuberculosis in prisons and prevention of spillover into communities: an observational and modeling study from Brazil. PLoS Med 2019; 16: 1 16
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Brasil Levantamento Nacional de Informações Penitenciárias: Atualização - Junho 2017. Ministério Da Justiça e Segurança Pública Dep Penitenciário Nac [Internet] 2017 1 74
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Pelissari DM, Kuhleis DC, Bartholomay P, Barreira D, Oliveira CLP et al. Prevalence and screening of active tuberculosis in a prison in the South of Brazil. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2018; 22: 1166 1171 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Valença MS, Possuelo LG, Cezar-Vaz MR, Silva PEAda. Tuberculose em presídios brasileiros: uma revisão integrativa dA literatura. Ciênc. saúde coletiva 2016; 21: 2147 2160 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Aily DCG, Berra JAP, Brandão AP, Chimara E. . Tuberculose, HIV E coinfecção POR TB/HIV no Sistema Prisional de Itirapina, São Paulo, Brasil. Rev Inst Adolfo Lutz 2014; 72: 288 294
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Reis AJ, de David SMM, Nunes L de S, Valim AR de M, Possuelo LG. Recent transmission of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a prison population in southern Brazil. J Bras Pneumol 2016; 42: 286 289
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Puga MAM, Bandeira LM, Pompilio MA, Rezende GRde, Soares LS et al. Screening for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis infections among Bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis prisoners: an urgent action required. PLoS One 2019; 14: e0221265 11 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Ribeiro Macedo L, Reis-Santos B, Riley LW, Maciel EL. Treatment outcomes of tuberculosis patients in Brazilian prisons: a polytomous regression analysis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2013; 17: 1427 1434 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Kose S, Adar P, Gozaydin A, Kuzucu L, Akkoclu G. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C in prisons: a prevalence study. Int J Prison Health 2019; 15: 162 167 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Sánchez A, Larouzé B. Controle da tuberculose nas prisões, da pesquisa à ação: a experiência do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Ciênc. saúde coletiva 2016; 21: 2071 2080 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Kuhleis D, Ribeiro AW, Costa ERD, Cafrune PI, Schmid KB et al. Tuberculosis in a southern Brazilian prison. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2012; 107: 909 915 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Ali S, Beckert P, Haileamlak A, Wieser A, Pritsch M et al. Drug resistance and population structure of M.tuberculosis isolates from prisons and communities in Ethiopia. BMC Infect Dis 2016; 16: 1 10 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Reis AJ, Diniz JLCG, Silva ABS, Silveira J, Basso R et al. Laboratory tools for tuberculosis control in a setting with a high burden of HIV/AIDS. J Med Microbiol 2019; 68: 1622 1628 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Vianna JS, Reis AJ, Busatto C, Aranalde LCR, Fernandes NR et al. A tuberculose e os fatores favoráveis sua disseminaçã entre a população privada de liberdade no extremo sul do Brasil. Rev Epidemiol e Control Infecção 2018; 8: 37 38
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Comas I, KiHomolka S, Niemann S, Gagneux S. Genotyping of Genetically monomorphic bacteria: DNA Sequencing in Mycobacterium tuberculosis highlights the limitations of current methodologies. 2009; 4
  38. Yokobori N, López B, Monteserin J, Paul R, Von Groll A et al. Performance of a highly successful outbreak strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a multifaceted approach to bacterial fitness assessment. Int J Med Microbiol 2018; 308: 349 357 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Dolla CK, Dhanraj B, Malaisamy M, Padma Priyadarshini C, Syeed Hissar S et al. Burden of pulmonary tuberculosis in modern prison: a cross sectional prevalence survey from South India. Indian J Tuberc 2019; 66: 189 192 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Sahle ET, Blumenthal J, Jain S, Sun S, Young J et al. Bacteriologically-confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis in an Ethiopian prison: prevalence from screening of entrant and resident prisoners. PLoS One 2019; 14: 1 16
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.001319
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.001319
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error