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Abstract

Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a serious complication after arthroplasty, which results in high morbidity, prolonged treatment and considerable healthcare expenses in the absence of accurate diagnosis. In China, microbiological data on PJIs are still scarce.

The incidence of PJI is increasing year by year, and the proportion of drug-resistant bacteria infection is nicreasing, which brings severe challenges to the treatment of infection.

This study aimed to identify the pathogens in PJIs, multi-drug resistance, and evaluate the effect of the treatment regimen in patients with PJI.

A total of 366 consecutive cases of PJI in the hip or knee joint were admitted at the Orthopedic Surgery Center in Zhengzhou, China from January 2012 to December 2018. Infections were confirmed in accordance with the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) criteria. Concurrently, patient demographic data, incidence and antibiotic resistance were investigated. Statistical differences were analysed using Fisher’s exact test or chi-square test.

Altogether, 318 PJI cases satisfying the inclusion criteria were enrolled in this study, including 148 with hip PJIs and 170 with knee PJIs. The average age of patients with hip PJIs was lesser than that of patients with knee PJIs (56.4 vs. 68.6 years). Meanwhile, coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CNS, =81, 25.5 %) was the predominant causative pathogen, followed by (=67, 21.1 %). Methicillin-resistant (MRS) was identified in 28.9 % of PJI patients. In addition, fungus accounted for 4.8 % (=15), non-tuberculosis mycobacterium accounted for 1.6 % (=5), polymicrobial pathogens accounted for 21.7 % (=69), and Gram-negative bacteria accounted for 7.9 % (=25) of the total infections. The results of antibiotic susceptibility testing showed that gentamicin and clindamycin β-lactam antibiotics were poorly susceptible to Gram-positive isolates, but they were sensitive to rifampicin, linezolid and vancomycin. While antibiotics such as amikacin and imipenem were effective against Gram-negative bacteria, there was a high resistance rate of other pathogens to gentamicin, clindamycin and some quinolone antibacterial drugs. Empirical antibiotic treatment should combine vancomycin and cephalosporin, levofloxacin or clindamycin. When the pathogen is confirmed, the treatment should be individualized.

The prevalence of culture-negative PJIs is still very high. Gram-positive bacteria are still the main type of pathogens that cause PJIs. Attention should be paid to the high incidence of MRS, such as MRSA and MR-CNS, among PJI patients. Empirical antibiotic treatment should cover Gram-positive isolates, especially .

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2021-01-15
2021-03-02
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