1887

Abstract

Although new parechovirus A (PeVA) types, including parechovirus A3 (PeVA3) and PeVA4, have been reported in this century, there have not yet been any seroepidemiological studies on PeVA over a period of several decades.

The authors hypothesize that PeVA3 and PeVA4 emerged recently.

The aim was to clarify changes in the seroprevalence of PeVA1, PeVA3 and PeVA4.

Neutralizing antibodies (NT Abs) were measured among residents in Yamagata, Japan in 1976, 1983, 1985, 1990, 1999 and 2017.

The total NT Ab-positive rate for PeVA1 was between 90.7 and 100 % for all years analysed, with that for PeVA3 increasing from 39.6 % in 1976 to 69.6 % in 2017, and that for PeVA4 decreasing from 93.9 % in 1976 to 49.1 % in 2017. The distribution of NT Ab titres for PeVA1, PeVA3 and PeVA4 among those aged less than 20 years old was as follows: those ≥1 : 32 for PeVA1 were between 68.0–89.2 % for all years analysed; those ≥1 : 32 for PeVA3 was 15.4 % in 1976, 44.3–54.9 % in 1983–1990 and 64.8–68.0 % in 1999–2017; and those ≥1 : 32 for PeVA4 were between 49.1–67.2 % in 1976–1990, 41.3 % in 1999 and 23.8 % in 2017.

Our findings in this seroepidemiological study over four decades suggested that PeVA1 has been stably endemic, while PeVA3 appeared around 1970s and has spread since then as an emerging disease, and occasional PeVA4 infections were common in 1970s and 1980s but have been decreasing for several decades in our community.

Funding
This study was supported by the:
  • the Association for Research on Lactic Acid Bacteria, Japan
    • Principle Award Recipient: Katsumi MIZUTA
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.001269
2020-11-10
2021-08-02
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Olijve L, Jennings L, Walls T. Human parechovirus: an increasingly recognized cause of sepsis-like illness in young infants. Clin Microbiol Rev 2018; 31:e00047–17 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Romero JR, Modlin JF. Human parechoviruses. In Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ. (editors) Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 8th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsvier; 2015 pp 2091–2094
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Ito M, Yamashita T, Tsuzuki H, Takeda N, Sakae K. Isolation and identification of a novel human parechovirus. J Gen Virol 2004; 85:391–398 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Benschop KSM, Schinkel J, Luken ME, van den Broek PJM, Beersma MF et al. Fourth human parechovirus serotype. Emerg Infect Dis 2006; 12:1572–1575 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Watanabe K, Oie M, Higuchi M, Nishikawa M, Fujii M. Isolation and characterization of novel human parechovirus from clinical samples. Emerg Infect Dis 2007; 13:889–895 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Ito M, Yamashita T, Tsuzuki H, Kabashima Y, Hasegawa A et al. Detection of human parechoviruses from clinical stool samples in Aichi, Japan. J Clin Microbiol 2010; 48:2683–2688 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Momoki TS. Analysis of human parechovirus genotypes in Yokohama district from 2000 to 2016. Jpn J Infect Dis 2018; 71:298–301 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Pham NTK, Thongprachum A, Shimizu Y, Trinh QD, Okitsu S et al. Diversity of human parechovirus in infants and children with acute gastroenteritis in Japan during 2014-2016. Infect Genet Evol 2019; 75:104001 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Nakao T, Miura R, Sato M. Echo virus type 22 infection in a premature infant. Tohoku J Exp Med 1970; 102:61–68 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Sato N, Sato H, Kawana R, Matumoto M. Ecological behavior of 6 Coxsackie B and 29 echo serotypes as revealed by serologic survey of general population in Aomori, Japan. Jpn J Med Sci Biol 1972; 25:355–368 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Joki-Korpela P, Hyypiä T. Diagnosis and epidemiology of echovirus 22 infections. Clin Infect Dis 1998; 27:129–136 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Takao S, Shimazu Y, Fukuda S, Noda M, Miyazaki K. Seroepidemiological study of human parechovirus 1. Jpn J Infect Dis 2001; 54:85–87[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Mizuta K, Abiko C, Murata T, Murayama S. Antibody positive rate against parechovirus type 1 among people in Yamagata, Japan in 2002. Report of The Yamagata Prefectural Institute of Public Health 2003; 36:58–59
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Westerhuis B, Kolehmainen P, Benschop K, Nurminen N, Koen G et al. Human parechovirus seroprevalence in Finland and the Netherlands. J Clin Virol 2013; 58:211–215 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Tanaka S, Aoki Y, Matoba Y, Yahagi K, Itagaki T et al. Seroepidemiology of human parechovirus types 1, 3, and 6 in Yamagata, Japan, in 2014. Microbiol Immunol 2016; 60:854–858 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Watanabe K, Hirokawa C, Tazawa T. Seropositivity and epidemiology of human parechovirus types 1, 3, and 6 in Japan. Epidemiol Infect 2016; 144:3451–3460 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Mizuta K, Kuroda M, Kurimura M, Yahata Y, Sekizuka T et al. Epidemic myalgia in adults associated with human parechovirus type 3 infection, Yamagata, Japan, 2008. Emerg Infect Dis 2012; 18:1787–1793 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Mizuta K, Aoki Y, Komabayashi K, Tanaka S, Yamakawa T et al. Parechovirus A3 (PeV-A3)-associated myalgia/myositis occurs irrespective of its genetic cluster: a longitudinal molecular epidemiology of PeVA-3 in Yamagata, Japan between 2003 and 2016. J Med Microbiol 2019; 68:424–428 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Kolehmainen P, Jääskeläinen A, Blomqvist S, Kallio-Kokko H, Nuolivirta K et al. Human parechovirus type 3 and 4 associated with severe infections in young children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2014; 33:1109–1113 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Sasidharan A, Harrison CJ, Banerjee D, Selvarangan R. Emergence of parechovirus A4 central nervous system infections among infants in Kansas City, Missouri, USA. J Clin Microbiol 2019; 57:e01698–18 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Van der Sanden S, de Bruin E, Vennema H, Swanink C, Koopmans M et al. Prevalence of human parechovirus in the Netherlands in 2000 to 2007. J Clin Microbiol 2008; 46:2884–2889 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Abedi GR, Watson JT, Pham H, Nix WA, Oberste MS et al. Enterovirus and human parechovirus Surveillance - United States, 2009-2013. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2015; 64:940–943 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Mizuta K, Tanaka W, Komabayashi K, Tanaka S, Seto J et al. Longitudinal epidemiology of viral infectious diseases combining virus isolation, antigenic analysis, and phylogenetic analysis as well as seroepidemiology in Yamagata, Japan, between 1999 and 2018. Jpn J Infect Dis 2019; 72:211–223 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Tanaka S, Matoba Y, Unno M, Ikeda T, Itagaki T et al. First isolation of human parechovirus type 4 in Yamagata, Japan. Jpn J Infect Dis 2017; 70:689–690 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Mizuta K, Tanaka S, Komabayashi K, Aoki Y, Itagaki T et al. Phylogenetic and antigenic analyses of coxsackievirus A6 isolates in Yamagata, Japan between 2001 and 2017. Vaccine 2019; 37:1109–1117 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Aizawa Y, Watanabe K, Oishi T, Hirano H, Hasegawa I et al. Role of maternal antibodies in infants with severe diseases related to human parechovirus type 3. Emerg Infect Dis 2015; 21:1966–1972 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Izumita R, Aizawa Y, Watanabe K, Saitoh A. Persistence of high neutralizing antibody titers after neonatal and early infantile infection with parechovirus-A3. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2019; 38:e159–e161 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. NESID National Epidemiological Surveillance of Infectious Diseases, Japan. https://nesid4g.mhlw.hq.admix.go.jp/GKWeb/GKMainServlet 2019 Jul 31
  29. Ehrnst A, Eriksson M. Epidemiological features of type 22 echovirus infection. Scand J Infect Dis 1993; 25:275–281 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Calvert J, Chieochansin T, Benschop KS, McWilliam Leitch EC, Drexler JF et al. Recombination dynamics of human parechoviruses: investigation of type-specific differences in frequency and epidemiological correlates. J Gen Virol 2010; 91:1229–1238 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Benschop KSM, de Vries M, Minnaar RP, Stanway G, van der Hoek L et al. Comprehensive full-length sequence analyses of human parechoviruses: diversity and recombination. J Gen Virol 2010; 91:145–154 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Al-Sunaidi M, Williams CH, Hughes PJ, Schnurr DP, Stanway G. Analysis of a new human parechovirus allows the definition of parechovirus types and the identification of RNA structural domains. J Virol 2007; 81:1013–1021 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Pajkrt D, Benschop KSM, Westerhuis B, Molenkamp R, Spanjerberg L et al. Clinical characteristics of human parechoviruses 4-6 infections in young children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2009; 28:1008–1010 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Westerhuis BM, Koen G, Wildenbeest JG, Pajkrt D, de Jong MD et al. Specific cell tropism and neutralization of human parechovirus types 1 and 3: implications for pathogenesis and therapy development. J Gen Virol 2012; 93:2363–2370 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Karelehto E, van der Sanden S, Geraets JA, Domanska A, van der Linden L et al. Strain-dependent neutralization reveals antigenic variation of human parechovirus 3. Sci Rep 2017; 7:12075 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.001269
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.001269
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplements

Supplementary material 1

PDF

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error