1887

Abstract

. Identification of typhoidal (TS) serovars and their discrimination from non-typhoidal (NTS) is conventionally performed by seroagglutination. This method is labour-intensive, requires technical experience and can be inconclusive in some cases. Molecular assays may be reliable alternative diagnostic tools.

. This study was designed to evaluate the eazyplex TyphiTyper based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for fast identification of TS and . Choleraesuis in culture.

. A total of 121 strains and 33 isolates of other species were tested by the eazyplex TyphiTyper. Simulated and clinical blood cultures (BCs) were used to examine the performance of the assay for diagnosis of systemic infection. Sample preparation took about 5 min and the test running time was 20 min. Amplification was measured by real-time fluorescence detection.

. All TS and . Choleraesuis strains were correctly identified. The most common NTS . Typhimurium (=34) and . Enteritidis (=15) were detected as species without any false positive result for TS targets. Cross-reactions of NTS with TS were only rarely observed. Direct testing of positive BCs gave correct results. Sensitivities and specificities of the assay were as follows: 100 and 99.3 % for . Typhi, 100 and 98.7 % for . Paratyphi A, 100 and 97.3 % for . Paratyphi B, 100 and 100 % for . Paratyphi C, 100 and 100 % for . Choleraesuis, and 100 and 100 % for species, respectively.

. The eazyplex TyphiTyper is very easy to perform and allows the rapid identification of TS and . Choleraesuis isolates.

Funding
This study was supported by the:
  • Jürgen Rödel , Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung , (Award 13N13890)
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.001201
2020-05-27
2020-10-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Als D, Radhakrishnan A, Arora P, Gaffey MF, Campisi S et al. Global trends in typhoidal salmonellosis: a systematic review. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018; 99:10–19 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Gibani MM, Britto C, Pollard AJ. Typhoid and paratyphoid fever: a call to action. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2018; 31:440–448 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Britto CD, Dyson ZA, Mathias S, Bosco A, Dougan G et al. Persistent circulation of a fluoroquinolone-resistant Salmonella enterica Typhi clone in the Indian subcontinent. J Antimicrob Chemother 2019pii:dkz435
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Phoba M-F, Barbé B, Lunguya O, Masendu L, Lulengwa D et al. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi producing CTX-M-15 extended spectrum β-lactamase in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Clin Infect Dis 2017; 65:1229–1231 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Pitzer VE, Meiring J, Martineau FP, Watson CH, Kang G et al. The invisible burden: diagnosing and combatting typhoid fever in Asia and Africa. Clin Infect Dis 2019; 69:S395–S401 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Rotimi VO, Jamal W, Pal T, Sovenned A, Albert MJ. Emergence of CTX-M-15 type extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Salmonella spp. in Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates. J Med Microbiol 2008; 57:881–886 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. GBD Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Invasive Disease Collaborators. The global burden of non-typhoidal Salmonella invasive disease: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet Infect Dis 2017; 2019:1312–1324
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Mughini-Gras L, Pijnacker R, Duijster J, Heck M, Wit B et al. Changing epidemiology of invasive non-typhoid Salmonella infection: a nationwide population-based registry study. Clin Microbiol Infect 2019; pii:S1198-743X:30614–30617 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Chiu C-H, Su L-H, Chu C. Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis: epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical disease, and treatment. Clin Microbiol Rev 2004; 17:311–322 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Gil Molino M, Risco Pérez D, Gonçalves Blanco P, Fernandez Llario P, Quesada Molina A et al. Outbreaks of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella Choleraesuis in wild boars piglets from central-western Spain. Transbound Emerg Dis 2019; 66:225–233 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Sugimoto R, Suzuki H, Nei T, Tashiro A, Washio Y et al. Neck abscess due to Salmonella Choleraesuis: case study and literature review. JMM Case Rep 2017; 4:e005109 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Grimont PAD, Weill FX. Antigenic formulae of the Salmonella serovars, 9th. Paris, France: WHO Collaborating Center for Reference and Research on Salmonella, Institut Pasteur; 2007. http://www.scacm.org/free/Antigenic%20Formulae%20of%20the%20-Salmonella%20Serovars%202007%209th%20edition.pdf
  13. Ewing WH, Ball MM, Bartes SF, McWhorter AC. The biochemical reactions of certain species and bioserotypes of Salmonella . J Infect Dis 1970; 121:288–294 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Ashton PM, Nair S, Peters TW, Bale JA, Powell DG et al. Identification of Salmonella for public health surveillance using whole genome sequencing. Peer J 2016:e1752
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Nair S, Patel V, Hickey T, Maguire C, Greig DR et al. Real-time PCR assay for differentiation of typhoidal and nontyphoidal Salmonella . J Clin Microbiol 2019; 57:e00167–e00169 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Fan F, Du P, Kan B, Yan M. The development and evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for the rapid detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. PLoS One 2015; 10:e0124507 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Frickmann H, Wiemer DF, Wassill L, Hinz R, Rojak S et al. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification-based detection of typhoid fever on an automated Genie II Mk2 system - A case-control-based approach. Acta Trop 2019; 190:293–295 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Rojak S, Wiemer DF, Wille A, Loderstädt U, Wassill L et al. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification for paratyphoid fever-a proof-of-principle analysis. Lett Appl Microbiol 2019; 68:509–513 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. EFSA and ECDC (European Food Safety Authority and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), 2018 The European Union summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2017.. EFSA Journal 2018; 16:5500, 262
    [Google Scholar]
  20. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control Salmonellosis. In: ECDC. Annual epidemiological report for 2016 Stockholm: ECDC; 2019
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Liu W-Q, Feng Y, Wang Y, Zou Q-H, Chen F et al. Salmonella paratyphi C: genetic divergence from Salmonella choleraesuis and pathogenic convergence with Salmonella typhi . PLoS One 2009; 4:e4510 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Chen S-Y, Weng T-H, Tseng W-P, Fu C-M, Lin H-W et al. Value of blood culture time to positivity in identifying complicated nontyphoidal Salmonella bacteremia. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2018; 91:210–216 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Crump JA, Sjölund-Karlsson M, Gordon MA, Parry CM. Epidemiology, clinical presentation, laboratory diagnosis, antimicrobial resistance, and antimicrobial management of invasive Salmonella infections. Clin Microbiol Rev 2015; 28:901–937 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Andrews JR, Ryan ET. Diagnostics for invasive Salmonella infections: current challenges and future directions. Vaccine 2015; 33 Suppl 3:C8–C15 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Zou Q-H, Li R-Q, Liu G-R, Liu S-L. Genotyping of Salmonella with lineage-specific genes: correlation with serotyping. Int J Infect Dis 2016; 49:134–140 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Braun SD, Ziegler A, Methner U, Slickers P, Keiling S et al. Fast DNA serotyping and antimicrobial resistance gene determination of Salmonella enterica with an oligonucleotide microarray-based assay. PLoS One 2012; 7:e46489 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Worley J, Meng J, Allard MW, Brown EW, Timme RE. Salmonella enterica phylogeny based on whole-genome sequencing reveals two new clades and novel patterns of horizontally acquired genetic elements. mBio 2018; 9:e02303–e02318 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Ojima-Kato T, Yamamoto N, Nagai S, Shima K, Akiyama Y et al. Application of proteotyping strain solution™ VER. 2 software and theoretically calculated mass database in MALDI-TOF MS typing of Salmonella serotype. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017; 101:8557–8569 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Kang L, Li N, Li P, Zhou Y, Gao S et al. MALDI-TOF mass pectrometry provides high accuracy in identification of Salmonella at species level but is limited to type or subtype Salmonella serovars. Eur J Mass Spectrom 2017; 23:70–82 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Huedo P, Gori M, Zolin A, Amato E, Ciceri G et al. Salmonella enterica serotype Napoli is the first cause of invasive nontyphoidal salmonellosis in Lombardy, Italy (2010-2014), and belongs to Typhi subclade. Foodborne Pathog Dis 2017; 14:148–151 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Sabbatucci M, Dionisi AM, Pezzotti P, Lucarelli C, Barco L et al. Molecular and epidemiologic analysis of reemergent Salmonella enterica serovar Napoli, Italy, 2011-2015. Emerg Infect Dis 2018; 24:562–565 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Malorny B, Bunge C, Helmuth R, Bunge HR. Discrimination of d-tartrate-fermenting and nonfermenting Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica isolates by genotypic and phenotypic methods. J Clin Microbiol 2003; 41:4292–4297 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Chart H. The pathogenicity of strains of Salmonella paratyphi B and Salmonella java . J Appl Microbiol 2003; 94:340–348 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Longo A, Petrin S, Mastrorilli E, Tiengo A, Lettini AA et al. Characterizing Salmonella enterica Serovar Cholerasuis, var. Kunzendorf: a comparative case study. Front Vet Sci 2019; 6:316 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Hapuarachchi CT, Jeffery KJM, Bowler ICJW. Stool PCR may not be a substitute for enrichment culture for the detection of Salmonella . J Med Microbiol 2019; 68:395–397 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.001201
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.001201
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error