1887

Abstract

Co-infection of leptospirosis–malaria is not uncommon due to their overlapping geographical distribution in the tropics.

This study aimed to describe and compare the demographic, clinical and laboratory features of leptospirosis–malaria co-infection (LMCI) against leptospirosis mono-infection (LMI) in Peninsular Malaysia.

Data of patients admitted to various hospitals in Peninsular Malaysia from 2011 to 2014 diagnosed with leptospirosis in our laboratory were obtained from their admission records. Co-infections with malaria were identified via blood film for malaria parasites (BFMP). Description with inferential statistics analysis and multiple logistic regressions were used to distinguish features between dual and mono-infections.

Of 111 leptospirosis-positive patients, 26 (23.4 %) tested positive for malaria. Co-infections were predominant among male patients with a mean age of 33 years and were prevalent among immigrant populations who had settled in high-density suburban areas. Chills and rigor with splenomegaly were the only significant distinguishing clinical features of LMCI while leukocytosis and raised transaminases were significant laboratory parameters. Only chills and rigor demonstrated a predictive value for LMCI from analysis of multiple logistic regressions. No death was attributed to co-infection in this study, in contrast to LMI (11.8 %, =10).

The significant prevalence of LMCI found in this study with overlapping demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters makes diagnosis of co-infection challenging. It is essential to evaluate co-infection in endemic areas. Strengthened awareness of LMCI, comprehensive diagnostic services and further prospective studies are warranted.

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/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.001127
2019-12-17
2020-01-24
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