1887

Abstract

Purpose. The purpose of the present study was to determine the relatedness of Staphylococcus aureus strains successively isolated over a 7-day period from a single bacteraemic patient undergoing antibiotic treatment with vancomycin.

Methods. The S. aureus strains had been isolated and sequenced previously. Antibiotic susceptibility testing, population analysis profiling, and lysostaphin sensitivity and phagocytic killing assays were used to characterize these clonal isolates.

Results. The seven isolates (MEH1–MEH7) were determined to belong to a common multilocus sequence type (MLST) and spa type. Within the third and fifth day of vancomycin treatment, mutations were observed in the vraS and rpsU genes, respectively. Population analysis profiles revealed that the initial isolate (MEH1) was vancomycin-susceptible S. aureus (VSSA), while those isolated on day 7 were mostly heteroresistant vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA). Supporting these findings, MEH7 was also observed to be slower in growth, to have an increase in cell wall width and to have reduced sensitivity to lysostaphin, all characteristics of VISA and hVISA strains. In addition, MEH7, although phagocytosed at numbers comparable to the initial isolate, MEH1, survived in higher numbers in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Macrophages infected with MEH7 also released more TNF-α and IFN-1β.

Conclusion. We report an increasing resistance to vancomycin coupled with daptomycin that occurred within approximately 3 days of receiving vancomycin and steadily increased until the infection was cleared with an alternative antibiotic therapy. This study reiterates the need for rapid, efficient and accurate detection of hVISA and VISA infections, especially in high-bacterial load, metastatic infections like bacteraemia.

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2019-05-28
2019-10-15
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