1887

Abstract

Purpose. Respiratory tract infections are a major cause of global morbidity and mortality. Pneumonia is the ninth leading cause of mortality in Sri Lanka. Atypical pathogens cause about one-fifth of community-acquired pneumonia, while Mycoplasma pneumoniae accounts for about 50 %. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of M. pneumoniae respiratory tract infections in Sri Lanka while attempting to understand the relationships between the serology and PCR.

Methodology. Paired sera from 418 adult patients (pneumonia, n=97; bronchitis, n=183; pharyngitis, n=138) and 87 healthy controls were studied. IgM, IgG and IgA antibodies were tested by M. pneumoniae enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Positive IgM and or IgG seroconversion was considered to be seropositive. M. pneumoniae DNA were tested by PCR in age and gender-matched seropositives and seronegatives.

Results. M. pneumoniae IgG was in 14.4 % (14/97), 6.0 % (11/183) and 1.5 % (2/138) of pneumonia, bronchitis and pharyngitis patients, respectively, whilst IgM was in 6.2 % (6/97), 1.1 % (2/183) and 0 % (0/138), respectively. Amongst the pneumonia seropositives, 64.7 % (11/17) showed IgG alone, 17.5 % (3/17) showed IgM alone and 17.5 % (3/17) showed IgM and IgG. Amongst the bronchitis seropositives, 84.6 % (11/13) had IgG alone and 15.4 % (2/13) had IgM alone. In the pharyngitis seropositives, only IgG was detected 100 % (2/2). M. pneumoniae DNA was in 52.2 % (12/23) of seropositives and 15.4 % (4/26) of seronegatives. In pneumonia or bronchitis patients, specific DNA was in 77.8 % (7/10) and 50 % (6/12) of patients, respectively. M. pneumoniae DNA was not found in pharyngitis patients. Of the seropositive PCR-negative pneumonia patients, 66.7 % (2/3) showed IgG alone and 33.3 % (1/3)showed IgM alone. In bronchitis patients, 83.3 % (5/6) showed IgG alone and 16.7 % (1/6) showed IgM alone. Of the seronegative PCR-positive patients, 16.7 % (2/12) had pneumonia and 18.2 % (2/11) had bronchitis.

Conclusion.The serological evidence for M. pneumoniae infection in Sri Lanka comprised the following prevalences: 17.5 % (17/97), 7.1 % (13/183) and 1.4 % (2/138) in adults with pneumonia, bronchitis or pharyngitis, respectively. M. pneumoniae DNA was in 52.2 % (12/23) of seropositives and 15.4 % (4/26) of seronegatives. IgG was predominant in PCR positives and negatives.

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2018-08-03
2019-10-17
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