1887

Abstract

Purpose. Urinary tract infection (UTI) can be community-acquired (Com-UTI) or catheter-associated (CAUTI) and may be associated with biofilm-producing organisms. A comparative analysis of biofilm-producing property (BPP), antibiotic-sensitivity and multi-drug resistance (MDR) and their relation with the BPP of isolates from Com-UTI and CAUTI has not yet been performed and necessitated this study.

Methodology. Objectives: (1) isolation of bacteria from CAUTI and Com-UTI and identification of their BPP, antibiotic-sensitivity and MDR status; (2) comparison of the isolates from CAUTI and Com-UTI as regards BPP, MDR status and their relation with BPP. Method: isolates from 100 cases each of Com-UTI and CAUTI were subjected to Congo redagar (CRA) and Safranin tube tests. Antibiotic susceptibility was investigated using the disc diffusion method. Both groups were compared regarding BPP, drug sensitivity and MDR status. Statistical analyses were performed using χ and Fisher’s exact tests.

Results. 76.19 % of isolates from Com-UTI and 60.72 % from CAUTI had BPP (P=0.0252; significant). The Safranin tube test detected more isolates with BPP than the CRA test. MDR is greater in CAUTI than Com-UTI (83.33 % versus 64.76 %; P=0.0039; significant). MDR is greater in isolates with BPP in both Com-UTI and CAUTI (76.47 and 62.35 %; non-significant).

Conclusions. BPP was found in both Com-UTI and CAUTI. When used together, the Safranin tube test and the CRA test increased the sensitivity of detecting BPP. MDR was higher in CAUTI than Com-UTI. MDR and BPP are not interrelated or associated, especially in settings where it is not certain that isolates were obtained from a well-formed biofilm. However, this does not rule out a higher incidence or prevalence of MDR in isolates with BPP taken directly from the biofilms.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.000525
2017-07-13
2019-10-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/66/7/927.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.000525&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Tenke P, Kovacs B, Jäckel M, Nagy E. The role of biofilm infection in urology. World J Urol 2006;24:13–20 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Litwin MS, Saigal CS, Yano EM, Avila C, Geschwind SA et al. Urologic diseases in America project: analytical methods and principal findings. J Urol 2005;173:933–937 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Fleming DM, Cross KW, Barley MA. Recent changes in the prevalence of diseases presenting for health care. Br J Gen Pract 2005;55:589–595[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Galatti L, Sessa A, Mazzaglia G, Pecchioli S, Rossi A et al. Antibiotic prescribing for acute and recurrent cystitis in primary care: a 4 year descriptive study. J Antimicrob Chemother 2006;57:551–556 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Hartstein AI, Garber SB, Ward TT, Jones SR, Morthland VH. Nosocomial urinary tract infection: a prospective evaluation of 108 catheterized patients. Infect Control 1981;2:380–386 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Murugan S, Devi PU, John PN. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of biofilm producing Escherichia coli of urinary tract infections. Curr Res Bacteriol 2011;4:73–80 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Frank DN, Wilson SS, St Amand AL, Pace NR. Culture-independent microbiological analysis of foley urinary catheter biofilms. PLoS One 2009;4:e7811 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Macleod SM, Stickler DJ. Species interactions in mixed-community crystalline biofilms on urinary catheters. J Med Microbiol 2007;56:1549–1557 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Eftekhar F, Mirmohamadi Z. Evaluation of biofilm production by Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates from nosocomial infections and skin of healthy volunteers. Int J Med Medical Sci 2009;1:438–441
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Gurung J, Khyriem AB, Banik A, Lyngdoh WV, Choudhury B et al. Association of biofilm production with multidrug resistance among clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from intensive care unit. Indian J Crit Care Med 2013;17:214–218 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Zobell CE, Allen EC. The significance of marine bacteria in the fouling of submerged surfaces. J Bacteriol 1935;29:239–251[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Høiby N, Ciofu O, Bjarnsholt T. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in cystic fibrosis. Future Microbiol 2010;5:1663–1674 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Brede CM, Shoskes DA. The etiology and management of acute prostatitis. Nat Rev Urol 2011;8:207–212 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Soto SM. Importance of biofilms in urinary tract infections: new therapeutic approaches. Adv Biol 2014;2014:1–13 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Costerton JW, Cheng KJ, Geesey GG, Ladd TI, Nickel JC et al. Bacterial biofilms in nature and disease. Annu Rev Microbiol 1987;41:435–464 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Wagner VE, Iglewski BH. P. aeruginosa biofilms in CF infection. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2008;35:124–134 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Chandrabhan D, Hemlata R, Renu B, Pradeep V. Isolation of dental caries bacteria from dental plaque and effect of tooth pastes on acidogenic bacteria. Open J Med Microbiol 2012;2:65–69 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Marrie TJ, Nelligan J, Costerton JW. A scanning and transmission electron microscopic study of an infected endocardial pacemaker lead. Circulation 1982;66:1339–1341 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Arciola CR, Campoccia D, Baldassarri L, Donati ME, Pirini V et al. Detection of biofilm formation in Staphylococcus epidermidis from implant infections. Comparison of a PCR-method that recognizes the presence of ica genes with two classic phenotypic methods. J Biomed Mater Res A 2006;76:425–430 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Pramodhini S, Niveditha S, Umadevi S. Antibiotic resistance pattern of biofilm-forming uropathogens isolated from catheterized patients in Pondicherry, India. Australasian Med J 2012;5:344–348[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Abdallah NMA, Elsayed SB, Mostafa MMY, El-Gohary GM. Biofilm forming bacteria isolates from urinary tract infection, relation to catheterization and susceptibility to antibiotics. Int J Biotechnol Mol Biol Res 2011;2:172–178
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Horan TC, Andrus M, Dudeck MA. CDC/NHSN surveillance definition of health care-associated infection and criteria for specific types of infections in the acute care setting. Am J Infect Control 2008;36:309–332 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Collee JG, Marmion BP, Fraser AG, Simmons A. (editors) Mackie and McCartney Practical Medical Microbiology, 14th ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 2006
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Winn WJ, Allen S, Janda W, Koneman E, Procop GS. et al. (editors) Koneman’s Color Atlas and Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology, 6th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams; 2006
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Twenty first informational supplement. M100-S21;31(1) CLSI; 2011
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Magiorakos AP, Srinivasan A, Carey RB, Carmeli Y, Falagas ME et al. Multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant and pandrug-resistant bacteria: an international expert proposal for interim standard definitions for acquired resistance. Clin Microbiol Infect 2012;18:268–281 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Christensen GD, Simpson WA, Bisno AL, Beachey EH. Adherence of slime-producing strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis to smooth surfaces. Infect Immun 1982;37:318–326[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Freeman DJ, Falkiner FR, Keane CT. New method for detecting slime production by coagulase negative staphylococci. J Clin Pathol 1989;42:872–874 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Deighton MA, Balkau B. Adherence measured by microtiter assay as a virulence marker for Staphylococcus epidermidis infections. J Clin Microbiol 1990;28:2442–2447
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Bahadin J, Teo SS, Mathew S. Aetiology of community-acquired urinary tract infection and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of uropathogens isolated. Singapore Med J 2011;52:415–420[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Shahidul KM, Asma A, Farahnaaz F, Sunjukta A. Determination of antibiotic resistance pattern of biofilm producing pathogenic bacteria associated with UTI. Int J Drug Dev & Res 2013;5:312–319
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Neupane S, Pant ND, Khatiwada S, Chaudhary R, Banjara MR. Correlation between biofilm formation and resistance toward different commonly used antibiotics along with extended spectrum beta lactamase production in uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from the patients suspected of urinary tract infections visiting Shree Birendra Hospital, Chhauni, Kathmandu, Nepal. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control 2016;5:5 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Kaur GDC, Sanjivani SM. Biofilm formation and antimicrobial resistance pattern among uropathogens. Int J Med Res 2015;4:339–344 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Sahal G, Bilkay IS. Multi drug resistance in strong biofilm forming clinical isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Braz J Microbiol 2014;45:539–544 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Reisner A, Krogfelt KA, Klein BM, Zechner EL, Molin S. In vitro biofilm formation of commensal and pathogenic Escherichia coli strains: impact of environmental and genetic factors. J Bacteriol 2006;188:3572–3581 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Soto SM, Smithson A, Martinez JA, Horcajada JP, Mensa J et al. Biofilm formation in uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains: relationship with prostatitis, urovirulence factors and antimicrobial resistance. J Urol 2007;177:365–368 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Bakaletz LO. Bacterial biofilms in otitis media: evidence and relevance. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2007;26:S17–S19 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Pantanella F, Berlutti F, Passariello C, Sarli S, Morea C et al. Violacein and biofilm production in Janthinobacterium lividum. J Appl Microbiol 2007;102:992–999 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Oliveira A, Cunha ML. Comparison of methods for the detection of biofilm production in coagulase-negative staphylococci. BMC Res Notes 2010;3:260 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Hovelius B, Mårdh PA. Staphylococcus saprophyticus as a common cause of urinary tract infections. Rev Infect Dis 1984;6:328–337 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Shashikala P, Singh S, Kanungo R, Jayachandran S. Correlation between biofilm production and multiple drug resistance in imipenem resistant clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii. Ind J Med Microbiol 2008;26:333[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Qi L, Li H, Zhang C, Liang B, Li J et al. Relationship between antibiotic resistance, biofilm formation, and biofilm-specific resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii. Front Microbiol 2016;7:483 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Hu Y, He L, Tao X, Meng F, Zhang J. Biofilm may not be necessary for the epidemic spread of Acinetobacter baumannii. Sci Rep 2016;6:32066 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Kolár M, Urbánek K, Látal T. Antibiotic selective pressure and development of bacterial resistance. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2001;17:357–363[PubMed][CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Albrich WC, Monnet DL, Harbarth S. Antibiotic selection pressure and resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes. Emerg Infect Dis 2004;10:514–517 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Gupta K, Scholes D, Stamm WE. Increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens causing acute uncomplicated cystitis in women. J Am Med Ass 1999;281:736–738 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.000525
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.000525
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error