1887

Abstract

Detection of and its DNA in clinically asymptomatic people is defined as colonization. The aim of this study was to reveal the colonization prevalence of and affecting factors in an immunocompetent population. The study included 200 cases undergoing forensic autopsy between February 2015 and April 2015. The cause of death was non-medical conditions (group 1) in 111 cases (55.5 %), medical conditions (group 2) in 73 cases (36.5 %) and undetermined (group 3) in 16 cases (group 3). Tissue specimens about 1 g in weight were taken from the right upper pulmonary lobe. After DNA extraction, nested PCR targeting mitochondrial large subunit rRNA was used to detect . Of 200 cases, 37 (18.5 %) had DNA. There was not a significant difference in place of living, gender, smoking status and medication use between the cases with and those without . A significantly high rate of colonization was detected in group 2 (²=7.674; =0.022). -colonized cases also had a chronic disease in 2 of 13 (group 1), 12 of 20 (group 2) and 1 of 4 (group 3) cases (²=5.571; =0.062). A significantly high rate of the cases aged 0–1 year had (5/11; 45.5 %) (²=5.639; =0.018). The results of the study suggest that infants and patients with chronic diseases like cardiac or pulmonary diseases can be at risk for colonization.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.000337
2016-10-18
2020-09-25
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/65/10/1152.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.000337&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Beard C. B., Fox M. R., Lawrence G. G., Guarner J., Hanzlick R. L., Huang L., del Rio C., Rimland D., Duchin J. S., Colley D. G.. 2005; Genetic differences in Pneumocystis isolates recovered from immunocompetent infants and from adults with AIDS: epidemiological implications. J Infect Dis192:1815–1818 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Calderon E. J., Dei-Cas E.. 2010; Pneumocystis infection: unraveling the colonization-to-disease shift. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther8:259–262 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Calderón E. J., Rivero L., Respaldiza N., Morilla R., Montes-Cano M. A., Friaza V., Muñoz-Lobato F., Varela J. M., Medrano F. J., De La Horra C.. 2007; Systemic inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who are colonized with Pneumocystis jirovecii. Clin Infect Dis45:e17e19 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Döskaya M., Caner A., Degirmenci A., Wengenack N. L., Yolasigmaz A., Turgay N., Ozensoy Töz S., Gürüz Y.. 2011; Degree and frequency of inhibition in a routine real-time PCR detecting Pneumocystis jirovecii for the diagnosis of Pneumocystis pneumonia in Turkey. J Med Microbiol60:937–944 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Fritzsche C., Riebold D., Munk-Hartig A., Klammt S., Neeck G., Reisinger E.. 2012; High prevalence of Pneumocystis jirovecii colonization among patients with autoimmune inflammatory diseases and corticosteroid therapy. Scand J Rheumatol41:208–213 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Güneş I., Kalkanci A., Kuştimur S., Ergüven S., Ozet G., Ekim N.. 2004; [Comparison of the methenamine silver staining, direct fluorescent antibody and nested-polymerase chain reaction methods in the diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia]. Mikrobiyol Bul38:105–112 (in Turkish with English abstract)[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Gutiérrez S., Respaldiza N., Campano E., Martínez-Risquez M. T., Calderón E. J., De La Horra C.. 2011; Pneumocystis jirovecii colonization in chronic pulmonary disease. Parasite18:121–126 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Krajicek B. J., Limper A. H., Thomas C. F.. 2008; Advances in the biology, pathogenesis and identification of Pneumocystis pneumonia. Curr Opin Pulm Med14:228–234 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Leigh T. R., Kangro H. O., Gazzard B. G., Jeffries D. J., Collins J. V.. 1993; DNA amplification by the polymerase chain reaction to detect sub-clinical Pneumocystis carinii colonization in HIV-positive and HIV-negative male homosexuals with and without respiratory symptoms. Respir Med87:525–529 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Maskell N. A., Waine D. J., Lindley A., Pepperell J. C., Wakefield A. E., Miller R. F., Davies R. J.. 2003; Asymptomatic carriage of Pneumocystis jirovecii in subjects undergoing bronchoscopy: a prospective study. Thorax58:594–597 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Medrano F. J., Montes-Cano M., Conde M., de la Horra C., Respaldiza N., Gasch A., Perez-Lozano M. J., Varela J. M., Calderon E. J.. 2005; Pneumocystis jirovecii in general population. Emerg Infect Dis 11:245–250[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Mekinian A., Durand-Joly I., Hatron P. Y., Moranne O., Denis G., Dei-Cas E., Morell-Dubois S., Lambert M., Launay D. et al. 2011; Pneumocystis jirovecii colonization in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases: prevalence, risk factors of colonization and outcome. Rheumatology50:569–577 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Morris A., Norris K. A.. 2012; Colonization by Pneumocystis jirovecii and its role in disease. Clin Microbiol Rev25:297–317 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Morris A., Wei K., Afshar K., Huang L.. 2008; Epidemiology and clinical significance of Pneumocystis colonization. J Infect Dis197:10–17 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Nevez G., Jounieaux V., Linas M. D., Guyot K., Leophonte P., Massip P., Schmit J. L., Seguela J. P., Camus D. et al. 1997; High frequency of Pneumocystis carinii sp.f. hominis colonization in HIV-negative patients. J Eukaryot Microbiol44:36 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Nevez G., Raccurt C., Vincent P., Jounieaux V., Dei-Cas E.. 1999; Pulmonary colonization with Pneumocystis carinii in human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients: assessing risk with blood CD4+ T cell counts. Clin Infect Dis29:1331–1332 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Nevez G., Totet A., Pautard J. C., Raccurt C.. 2001; Pneumocystis carinii detection using nested-PCR in nasopharyngeal aspirates of immunocompetent infants with bronchiolitis. J Eukaryot Microbiol2001:122–123[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Nevez G., Magois E., Duwat H., Gouilleux V., Jounieaux V., Totet A.. 2006; Apparent absence of Pneumocystis jirovecii in healthy subjects. Clin Infect Dis42:e99e101 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Özkoç S., Bayram Delibaş S.. 2015; [Investigation of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia and colonization in iatrogenically immunosuppressed and immunocompetent patients]. Mikrobiyol Bul49:221–230 (in Turkish with English abstract) [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Özkoç S., Inceboz T., Sifil A., Tuncay S., Akisü Ç.. 2010; [Pneumocystis pneumonia in a renal transplant recipient]. Turkiye Parazitol Derg34:186–189 (in Turkish with English abstract) [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Özkoç S., Bayram Delibaş S., Erbaycu A. E., Ergüden C., Akisü Ç.. 2014; [Investigation of Pneumocystis jirovecii colonization in patients with pulmonary diseases]. Turkiye Parazitol Derg38:214–219 (in Turkish with English Abstract) [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Özmen A., Mistik R., Alver O., Coşkun F., Ursavaş A., Uzaslan E.. 2013; [The Pneumocystis jirovecii colonization in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and bronchial washing and the comparison of methods which are used in diagnosis]. Tuberk Toraks61:303–311 (in Turkish with English abstract) [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Peters S. E., Wakefield A. E., Sinclair K., Millard P. R., Hopkin J. M.. 1992; A search for Pneumocystis carinii in post-mortem lungs by DNA amplification. J Pathol166:195–198 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Ponce C. A., Gallo M., Bustamante R., Vargas S. L.. 2010; Pneumocystis colonization is highly prevalent in the autopsied lungs of the general population. Clin Infect Dis50:347–353 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Tasaka S., Tokuda H.. 2012; Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in non-HIV-infected patients in the era of novel immunosuppressive therapies. J Infect Chemother18:793–806 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Tasaka S., Tokuda H.. 2013; Recent advances in the diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in HIV-infected adults. Expert Opin Med Diagn7:85–97 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Tekinşen F. F., Koç A. N.. 2013; [Investigation of Pneumocystis jirovecii in clinical specimens by different methods]. Mikrobiyol Bul47:658–667 (in Turkish with English abstract) [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Tia T., Putaporntip C., Kosuwin R., Kongpolprom N., Kawkitinarong K., Jongwutiwes S.. 2012; A highly sensitive novel PCR assay for detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii DNA in bronchoalveloar lavage specimens from immunocompromised patients. Clin Microbiol Infect18:598–603 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Tosun I., Buruk K., Dede R., Kaklikaya N.. 2013; [Investigation of Pneumocystis jirovecii in respiratory samples of immunocompromised patients with PCR, IFA and Giemsa staining methods]. Mikrobiyol Bul47:195–197 (in Turkish with English abstract) [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Vargas S. L., Ponce C. A., Hughes W. T., Wakefield A. E., Weitz J. C., Donoso S., Ulloa A. V., Madrid P., Gould S. et al. 1999; Association of primary Pneumocystis carinii infection and sudden infant death syndrome. Clin Infect Dis29:1489–1493 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Vargas S. L., Hughes W. T., Santolaya M. E., Ulloa A. V., Ponce C. A., Cabrera C. E., Cumsille F., Gigliotti F.. 2001; Search for primary infection by Pneumocystis carinii in a cohort of normal, healthy infants. Clin Infect Dis32:855–861 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Vargas S. L., Ponce C. A., Luchsinger V., Silva C., Gallo M., López R., Belletti J., Velozo L., Avila R. et al. 2005; Detection of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis and viruses in presumably immunocompetent infants who died in the hospital or in the community. J Infect Dis191:122–126 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Vidal S., de la Horra C., Martín J., Montes-Cano M. A., Rodríguez E., Respaldiza N., Rodríguez F., Varela J. M., Medrano F. J., Calderón E. J.. 2006; Pneumocystis jirovecii colonisation in patients with interstitial lung disease. Clin Microbiol Infect12:231–235 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.000337
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.000337
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error