1887

Abstract

The multilocus sequence typing (MLST) database (http://pubmlst.org/bpseudomallei/) contains the largest global sequence repository for and its closest genetic relatives. Using conventional MLST and MLST data derived from publicly available whole-genome sequences, we first defined the phylogenetic relatedness of and its nearest neighbours. Based on this analysis, we propose that the recently described complex (Bpc) should be expanded to encompass , (proposed), , , and three unassigned Clades A, B and C (represented by type strains BDU 5, BDU 8 and MSMB0265, respectively). Of note, the MLST locus is present in all Bpc species but is missing in all other spp., including all complex species, with the exception of most strains, which contain but encode genetically distinct sequences. The presence of is thus indicative of a Bpc strain. Next, we revisited the performance of the existing MLST primers, which prompted redesign of primers targeting the , , , and loci to encompass genetic diversity among Bpc strains and to address amplification/sequencing issues. We show and that the redesigned primers yield good-quality amplification and sequencing results for the , , , and loci in Bpc species. These primers provide an alternative for amplification and sequencing of MLST loci in Bpc species in cases when poor-quality amplification or sequencing data are obtained using the original MLST primers.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.000312
2016-09-01
2020-09-25
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/65/9/992.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.000312&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Currie B. J.. 2015; Melioidosis: evolving concepts in epidemiology, pathogenesis, and treatment. Semin Respir Crit Care Med36:111–125 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Dance D. A. B.. 2009; Melioidosis and glanders as possible biological weapons. In Bioterrorism and Infectious Agents: A New Dilemma for the 21st Century , pp. 99–145 Edited by Fong I. W., Alibek K.. New York, NY: Springer;[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Depoorter E., Bull M. J., Peeters C., Coenye T., Vandamme P., Mahenthiralingam E.. 2016; Burkholderia: an update on taxonomy and biotechnological potential as antibiotic producers. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol100:5215–5229 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Gee J. E., Glass M. B., Novak R. T., Gal D., Mayo M. J., Steigerwalt A. G., Wilkins P. P., Currie B. J.. 2008; Recovery of a Burkholderia thailandensis-like isolate from an Australian water source. BMC Microbiol8:54 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Ginther J. L., Mayo M., Warrington S. D., Kaestli M., Mullins T., Wagner D. M., Currie B. J., Tuanyok A., Keim P.. 2015; Identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei near-neighbor species in the Northern Territory of Australia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis9:e0003892 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Glass M. B., Steigerwalt A. G., Jordan J. G., Wilkins P. P., Gee J. E.. 2006; Burkholderia oklahomensis sp. nov., a Burkholderia pseudomallei-like species formerly known as the Oklahoma strain of Pseudomonas pseudomallei . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol56:2171–2176 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Godoy D., Randle G., Simpson A. J., Aanensen D. M., Pitt T. L., Kinoshita R., Spratt B. G.. 2003; Multilocus sequence typing and evolutionary relationships among the causative agents of melioidosis and glanders, Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei . J Clin Microbiol41:2068–2079 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Holden M. T., Titball R. W., Peacock S. J., Cerdeño-Tárraga A. M., Atkins T., Crossman L. C., Pitt T., Churcher C., Mungall K. et al. 2004; Genomic plasticity of the causative agent of melioidosis, Burkholderia pseudomallei . Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A101:14240–14245 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Johnson S. L., Bishop-Lilly K. A., Ladner J. T., Daligault H. E., Davenport K. W., Jaissle J., Frey K. G., Koroleva G., Bruce D. C. et al. 2015; Complete genome sequences for 59 Burkholderia isolates, both pathogenic and near neighbor. Genome Announc3:e0015915 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Jolley K. A., Maiden M. C.. 2010; BIGSdb: scalable analysis of bacterial genome variation at the population level. BMC Bioinformatics11:595 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Larkin M. A., Blackshields G., Brown N. P., Chenna R., McGettigan P. A., McWilliam H., Valentin F., Wallace I. M., Wilm A. et al. 2007; clustal w and clustal x version 2.0. Bioinformatics23:2947–2948 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Lehavi O., Aizenstien O., Katz L. H., Hourvitz A.. 2002; Glanders – a potential disease for biological warfare in humans and animals. Harefuah141:88–91[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Limmathurotsakul D., Wongratanacheewin S., Teerawattanasook N., Wongsuvan G., Chaisuksant S., Chetchotisakd P., Chaowagul W., Day N. P., Peacock S. J.. 2010; Increasing incidence of human melioidosis in Northeast Thailand. Am J Trop Med Hyg82:1113–1117 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Limmathurotsakul D., Golding N., Dance D. A., Messina J. P., Pigott D. M., Moyes C. L., Rolim D. B., Bertherat E., Day N. P. et al. 2016; Predicted global distribution of Burkholderia pseudomallei and burden of melioidosis. Nat Microbiol1:15008 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Lowe W., March J. K., Bunnell A. J., O'Neill K. L., Robison R. A.. 2014; PCR-based methodologies used to detect and differentiate the Burkholderia pseudomallei complex: B. pseudomallei, B. mallei, and B. thailandensis . Curr Issues Mol Biol16:23–54[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Naureen A., Saqib M., Muhammad G., Hussain M. H., Asi M. N.. 2007; Comparative evaluation of Rose Bengal plate agglutination test, mallein test, and some conventional serological tests for diagnosis of equine glanders. J Vet Diagn Invest19:362–367 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Nierman W. C., DeShazer D., Kim H. S., Tettelin H., Nelson K. E., Feldblyum T., Ulrich R. L., Ronning C. M., Brinkac L. M. et al. 2004; Structural flexibility in the Burkholderia mallei genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A101:14246–14251 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Payne G. W., Vandamme P., Morgan S. H., Lipuma J. J., Coenye T., Weightman A. J., Jones T. H., Mahenthiralingam E.. 2005; Development of a recA gene-based identification approach for the entire Burkholderia genus. Appl Environ Microbiol71:3917–3927 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Peeters C., Depoorter E., Praet J., Vandamme P.. 2016; Extensive cultivation of soil and water samples yields various pathogens in patients with cystic fibrosis but not Burkholderia multivorans . J Cyst FibrosS1569-1993:30005-4
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Price E. P., Sarovich D. S., Webb J. R., Ginther J. L., Mayo M., Cook J. M., Seymour M. L., Kaestli M., Theobald V. et al. 2013; Accurate and rapid identification of the Burkholderia pseudomallei near-neighbour, Burkholderia ubonensis, using real-time PCR. PLoS One8:e71647 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Spilker T., Baldwin A., Bumford A., Dowson C. G., Mahenthiralingam E., LiPuma J. J.. 2009; Expanded multilocus sequence typing for Burkholderia species. J Clin Microbiol47:2607–2610 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Vesaratchavest M., Tumapa S., Day N. P., Wuthiekanun V., Chierakul W., Holden M. T., White N. J., Currie B. J., Spratt B. G. et al. 2006; Nonrandom distribution of Burkholderia pseudomallei clones in relation to geographical location and virulence. J Clin Microbiol44:2553–2557 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Wiersinga W. J., Currie B. J., Peacock S. J.. 2012; Melioidosis. N Engl J Med367:1035–1044 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.000312
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.000312
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplements

Supplementary File 1

PDF

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error