1887

Abstract

O1 biotype El Tor, the causative agent of the seventh pandemic, has recently been replaced by strains carrying classical and Haitian in India, Haiti and other parts of the world. We conducted phenotypic and genetic tests to characterize O1 isolated between 2012 and 2014 from Silvassa, India, to examine the presence of virulence and regulatory genes, seventh pandemic marker, type and biofilm formation and to study genomic diversity. Of the 59 O1, eight isolates belong to El Tor prototype, one to classical prototype and the remaining isolates have attributes of both classical and El Tor biotypes. PCR and gene sequencing revealed the presence of classical in four strains and Haitian in 55 isolates; indicating that isolates were either an El Tor or hybrid variant. All isolates carried virulence, regulatory, adherence, seventh pandemic pathogenicity island I and seventh pandemic group-specific marker VC2346, in addition to and , the features of seventh pandemic strains, and produced cholera toxin and biofilm. PFGE analysis showed that the majority of isolates are clonal and belong to fingerprint pattern A; however, pattern B is unrelated and patterns C and D are distinct, suggesting considerable diversity in the genomic content among them. These data thus show that isolates from Silvassa are genetically diverse and that Haitian and hybrid phenotypes are undergoing global dissemination.

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2016-08-01
2021-10-27
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