1887

Abstract

spp. (, , and ) cause bacillary dysentery (shigellosis), which is characterized by bloody mucous diarrhoea. Although a variety of antibiotics have been effective for treatment of shigellosis, options are becoming limited due to globally emerging drug resistance. In the present study, antibacterial activity of methyl gallate (MG) isolated from was determined by performing MIC, minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) and time-kill kinetic studies. Bacterial membrane-damaging activity of MG was determined by membrane perturbation and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cellular drug accumulation, cell infection and assessment of intracellular activities of MG and reference antibiotics were performed using HeLa cell cultures. The bactericidal activity of MG against multidrug-resistant (MDR) spp. in comparison with other commonly used drugs including fluoroquinolone was demonstrated here. TEM findings in the present study revealed that MG caused the total disintegration of inner and outer membranes, and leakage of the cytoplasmic contents of . The level of accumulation of MG and tetracycline in HeLa cells incubated for 24 h was relatively higher than that of ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid (ratio of intracellular concentration/extracellular concentration of antibiotic for MG and tetracycline>ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid). The viable number of intracellular was decreased in a time-dependent manner in the presence of MG (4 × MBC) and reduced to zero within 20 h. The significant intracellular activities of MG suggested that it could potentially be used as an effective antibacterial agent for the treatment of severe infections caused by MDR spp.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.000107
2015-08-01
2021-10-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/64/8/901.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.000107&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Acharyya S., Patra A., Bag P.K. 2009; Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants against enteric bacteria with particular reference to multi-drug resistant Vibrio cholerae . Trop J Pharm Res 8:231–237 [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Acharyya S., Patra A., Bag P.K. 2012; A comparative study on antioxidant potential of nine Indian medicinal plants. CIBTECH J Pharm Sci 1:16–23
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bag P.K., Bhowmik P., Hajra T.K., Ramamurthy T., Sarkar P., Majumder M., Chowdhury G., Das S.C. 2008; Putative virulence traits and pathogenicity of Vibrio cholerae non-O1, non-O139 isolates from surface waters in Kolkata, India. Appl Environ Microbiol 74:5635–5644 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Barcia-Macay M., Seral C., Mingeot-Leclercq M.P., Tulkens P.M., Van Bambeke F. 2006; Pharmacodynamic evaluation of the intracellular activities of antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus in a model of THP-1 macrophages. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:841–851 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bardhan P., Faruque A.S., Naheed A., Sack D.A. 2010; Decrease in shigellosis-related deaths without Shigella spp.-specific interventions, Asia. Emerg Infect Dis 16:1718–1723 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Barman S., Kumar R., Chowdhury G., Rani Saha D., Wajima T., Hamabata T., Ramamurthy T., Balakrish Nair G., Takeda Y., Koley H. 2011; Live non-invasive Shigella dysenteriae 1 strain induces homologous protective immunity in a guinea pig colitis model. Microbiol Immunol 55:683–693 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bradley J.S., Jackson M.A., Committee on Infectious Diseases. 2011; The use of systemic and topical fluoroquinolones. Pediatrics 128:e1034–e1045 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Carryn S., Van Bambeke F., Mingeot-Leclercq M.P., Tulkens P.M. 2002; Comparative intracellular (THP-1 macrophage) and extracellular activities of β-lactams, azithromycin, gentamicin, and fluoroquinolones against Listeria monocytogenes at clinically relevant concentrations. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:2095–2103 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. CDC 2006; Outbreaks of multidrug-resistant Shigella sonnei gastroenteritis associated with day care centers: Kansas Kentucky, Missouri, 2005. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 55:1068–1071[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Choi J.-G., Kang O.-H., Lee Y.-S., Oh Y.-C., Chae H.-S., Jang H.-J., Shin D.-W., Kwon D.-Y. 2009; Antibacterial activity of methyl gallate isolated from Galla Rhois or carvacrol combined with nalidixic acid against nalidixic acid resistant bacteria. Molecules 14:1773–1780 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. CLSI 2010 Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; 18th Information Supplement M100-S20 Wayne, PA: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute;
    [Google Scholar]
  12. De La Fuente R., Sonawane N.D., Arumainayagam D., Verkman A.S. 2006; Small molecules with antimicrobial activity against E. coli P. aeruginosa identified by high-throughput screening. Br J Pharmacol 149:551–559 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Dutta S., Dutta S., Dutta P., Matsushita S., Bhattacharya S.K., Yoshida S. 2003; Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1, Kolkata, India. Emerg Infect Dis 9:1471–1474 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Emch M., Ali M., Yunus M. 2008; Risk areas and neighborhood-level risk factors for Shigella dysenteriae 1 and Shigella flexneri . Health Place 14:96–105 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Ghosh S., Pazhani G.P., Chowdhury G., Guin S., Dutta S., Rajendran K., Bhattacharya M.K., Takeda Y., Niyogi S.K., other authors. 2011; Genetic characteristics and changing antimicrobial resistance amongst Shigella spp. isolated from hospitalized diarrhoeal patients in Kolkata, India. J Med Microbiol 60:1460–1466 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Headley V.L., Payne S.M. 1990; Differential protein expression by Shigella flexneri in intracellular and extracellular environments. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 87:4179–4183 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Huang E., Yousef A.E. 2014; The lipopeptide antibiotic paenibacterin binds to the bacterial outer membrane and exerts bactericidal activity through cytoplasmic membrane damage. Appl Environ Microbiol 80:2700–2704 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Hurdle J.G., O'Neill A.J., Chopra I., Lee R.E. 2011; Targeting bacterial membrane function: an underexploited mechanism for treating persistent infections. Nat Rev Microbiol 9:62–75 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Kadurugamuwa J.L., Beveridge T.J. 1998; Delivery of the non-membrane-permeative antibiotic gentamicin into mammalian cells by using Shigella flexneri membrane vesicles. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 42:1476–1483[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Kala C.P., Farooquee N.A., Dhar U. 2004; Prioritization of medicinal plants on the basis of available knowledge, existing practices and use value status in Uttaranchal, India. Biodivers Conserv 13:453–469 [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Kweon M.N. 2008; Shigellosis: the current status of vaccine development. Curr Opin Infect Dis 21:313–318 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. McKenzie R., Venkatesan M.M., Wolf M.K., Islam D., Grahek S., Jones A.M., Bloom A., Taylor D.N., Hale T.L., Bourgeois A.L. 2008; Safety and immunogenicity of WRSd1, a live attenuated Shigella dysenteriae type 1 vaccine candidate. Vaccine 26:3291–3296 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Nagano Y., Nagano N., Wachino J., Ishikawa K., Arakawa Y. 2009; Novel chimeric beta-lactamase CTX-M-64, a hybrid of CTX-M-15-like and CTX-M-14 beta-lactamases, found in a Shigella sonnei strain resistant to various oxyimino-cephalosporins, including ceftazidime. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:69–74 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. NCCLS 1997 Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria That Grow Aerobically; Approved Standards M7-A4 Wayne, PA: National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards;
    [Google Scholar]
  25. NCCLS 1999 Methods for Determining Bactericidal Activity of Antimicrobial Agents; Approved Guideline M26-A Wayne, PA: National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards;
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Pazhani G.P., Ramamurthy T., Mitra U., Bhattacharya S.K., Niyogi S.K. 2005; Species diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Shigella spp. isolated between 2001 and 2004 from hospitalized children with diarrhoea in Kolkata (Calcutta), India. Epidemiol Infect 133:1089–1095 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Pozsgay V., Kubler-Kielb J., Schneerson R., Robbins J.B. 2007; Effect of the nonreducing end of Shigella dysenteriae type 1 O-specific oligosaccharides on their immunogenicity as conjugates in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:14478–14482 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Rahman M., Shoma S., Rashid H., El Arifeen S., Baqui A.H., Siddique A.K., Nair G.B., Sack D.A. 2007; Increasing spectrum in antimicrobial resistance of Shigella isolates in Bangladesh: resistance to azithromycin and ceftriaxone and decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. J Health Popul Nutr 25:158–167[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Ríos J.L., Recio M.C. 2005; Medicinal plants and antimicrobial activity. J Ethnopharmacol 100:80–84 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Sack D.A., Lyke C., McLaughlin C., Suwanvanichkij V. 2001 Antimicrobial Resistance in Shigellosis, Cholera and Campylobacteriosis Geneva: World Health Organization;
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Sánchez E., Heredia N., Camacho-Corona M.R., García S. 2013; Isolation, characterization and mode of antimicrobial action against Vibrio cholerae of methyl gallate isolated from Acacia farnesiana . J Appl Microbiol 115:1307–1316 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Sansonetti P.J. 2006; The bacterial weaponry: lessons from Shigella . Ann N Y Acad Sci 1072:307–312 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Sarkar K., Ghosh S., Niyogi S.K., Bhattacharya S.K. 2003; Shigella dysenteriae type 1 with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. Lancet 361:785 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Situ H., Bobek L.A. 2000; In vitro assessment of antifungal therapeutic potential of salivary histatin-5, two variants of histatin-5, and salivary mucin (MUC7) domain 1. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 44:1485–1493 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Sivapalasingam S., Nelson J.M., Joyce K., Hoekstra M., Angulo F.J., Mintz E.D. 2006; High prevalence of antimicrobial resistance amongst Shigella isolates in the United States tested by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System from 1999 to 2002. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:49–54 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Sur D., Ramamurthy T., Deen J., Bhattacharya S.K. 2004; Shigellosis: challenges & management issues. Indian J Med Res 120:454–462[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Thakurta P., Bhowmik P., Mukherjee S., Hajra T.K., Patra A., Bag P.K. 2007; Antibacterial, antisecretory and antihemorrhagic activity of Azadirachta indica used to treat cholera and diarrhea in India. J Ethnopharmacol 111:607–612 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Traa B.S., Walker C.L., Munos M., Black R.E. 2010; Antibiotics for the treatment of dysentery in children. Int J Epidemiol 39:(Suppl 1)i70–i74 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Tsao N., Luh T.-Y., Chou C.-K., Chang T.-Y., Wu J.-J., Liu C.-C., Lei H.-Y. 2002; In vitro action of carboxyfullerene. J Antimicrob Chemother 49:641–649 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Tyagi P., Singh M., Kumari H., Kumari A., Mukhopadhyay K. 2015; Bactericidal activity of curcumin I is associated with damaging of bacterial membrane. PLoS One 10:e0121313 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. von Seidlein L., Kim D.R., Ali M., Lee H., Wang X., Thiem V.D., Canh G., Chaicumpa W., Agtini M.D., other authors. 2006; A multicentre study of Shigella diarrhoea in six Asian countries: disease burden, clinical manifestations, and microbiology. PLoS Med 3:e353 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Wong M.R., Reddy V., Hanson H., Johnson K.M., Tsoi B., Cokes C., Gallagher L., Lee L., Plentsova A., other authors. 2010; Antimicrobial resistance trends of Shigella serotypes in New York City, 2006-2009. Microb Drug Resist 16:155–161 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  43. WHO 2005a; Shigellosis disease burden, epidemiology and case management. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 80:94–99[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  44. WHO 2005b Guidelines for the Control of Shigellosis, Including Epidemics Due to Shigella dysenteriae 1 Geneva: World Health Organization;
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.000107
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.000107
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplements

Supplementary Data

PDF

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error