The effects of staphylococcal products as chemo-attractants for human blood neutrophils and monocytes and as inhibitors of locomotion of these cells were studied with bacterial cells, culture nitrates and isoelectrically focused fractions from culture filtrates of nine strains of Little direct chemotactic activity of staphylococcal products for neutrophils was observed, although a chloroform-soluble extract of the whole organisms contained such activity. The major chemotactic effect of staphylococci for neutrophils was indirect, i.e., generated when the organisms or their products were incubated with plasma, perhaps due to activation of complement. In contrast, direct chemotactic activity for monocytes was found in a large number of staphylococcal fractions. Staphylococci also produced inhibitors of locomotion of both neutrophils and monocytes. Isoelectric focusing showed more fractions inhibitory for neutrophils than for monocytes. Some of the inhibitors could be identified. Staphylococcal α-toxin inhibited migration of both neutrophils and monocytes. Sphingomyelinase C (β toxin) inhibited migration of monocytes but not of neutrophils. Leucocidin-rich strains were strongly active as inhibitors of neutrophil locomotion but less so as inhibitors of monocyte locomotion.


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