Antimicrobial resistance patterns of serotype Typhimurium isolates obtained during the period 1987-1994 were examined and the molecular epidemiology and the mechanisms of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and trimethoprim were investigated in 24 strains isolated during 1994. Resistance to ampicillin increased from 18% to 78%, to chloramphenicol from 15% to 78%, to tetracycline from 53% to 89% and to co-trimoxazole from 3% to 37%, whereas resistance to norfloxacin remained at 0%. Of serotype Typhimurium strains isolated during 1994, all ampicillin-resistant strains had an MIC > 256 mg/L, except one strain in which the MIC was 64 mg/L. Twelve strains (52%) had a TEM-type β-lactamase, nine (39%) a CARB-type β-lactamase and two strains (8%) had an OXA-type β-lactamase. Chloramphenicol acetyl-transferase activity was detected in only nine (47%) of 19 chloramphenicol resistant strains, whereas all eight trimethoprim-resistant strains produced a dihydrofolate reductase type Ia enzyme. Three different epidemiological groups were defined by either low-frequency restriction analysis of chromosomal DNA and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis or repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR. The latter technique provided an alternative, rapid and powerful genotyping method for S. Typhimurium. Although quinolones provide a good therapeutic alternative, the multiresistance of . Typhimurium is of public health concern and it is important to continue surveillance of resistance levels and their mechanisms.


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