1887

Abstract

colonises a wide range of implanted prosthetic devices, but rarely contact lenses – despite a similarity in material composition. A conceivable explanation for this anomaly is the action of the tear defences, including the constitutive proteins lactoferrin and lysozyme. Therefore this study investigated the effect of lactoferrin, lysozyme and serum on the growth of isolates in artificial tear fluid. Whether supplemented with serum alone or serum with either apolactoferrin or lysozyme, this medium induced a similar, strain-variable effect. However, simultaneous addition of these proteins induced a greater bactericidal or bacteristatic effect. Of those strains killed by the concerted action of apolactoferrin and lysozyme, the absence of serum led to a further increase in the bactericidal effect, whereas strains displaying bacteriostasis were unaffected by serum. Iron saturation of lactoferrin reversed the antimicrobial synergy of apolactoferrin and lysozyme. These results show synergy between lactoferrin and lysozyme which is dependent on the iron limitation of lactoferrin. As a bactericidal mechanism, this synergy is augmented by serum, but bacteriostasis remains unaffected by serum supplemention. Thus, the combination of lysozyme and lactoferrin may partly explain the low level of contact lens colonisation by .

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/00222615-47-9-837
1998-09-01
2022-01-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/47/9/medmicro-47-9-837.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/00222615-47-9-837&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Tenney J. H., Moody M. R., Newman K. AAdherent microorganisms on lumenal surfaces of long-term intravenous catheters. Importance of Staphylococcus epidermidis in patients with cancer. Arch Intern Med 1986; 146:1949–1954
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Driebe W. T., Mandelbaum S., Forster R. K., Schwartz L. K., Culbertson W. W. Pseudophakic endophthalmitis. Diagnosis and management. Ophthalmology 1986; 93:442–448
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Cohen E. J., Gonzalez C., Leavitt K. G., Arentsen J. J., Laibson P. R. Corneal ulcers associated with contact lenses including experience with disposable lenses. CLAO J 1991; 17:173–176
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Chandler J. W., Gillette T. E. Immunologic defense mechanisms of the ocular surface. Ophthalmology 1983; 90:585–591
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Willcox M. D. P., Morris C. A., Thakur A., Sack R. A., Wickson J., Boey W. Complement and complement regulatory proteins in human tears. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1997; 38:1–8
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Kijlstra A. The role of lactoferrin in the nonspecific immune response on the ocular surface. Reg Immunol 1991; 3:193–197
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Leitch E. C., Willcox M. D. P. Interactions between the constitutive host defences of tears and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Aust NZ J Ophthalmol 1997; 25: Suppl 1S20–S22
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Arnold R. R., Cole M. F., McGhere J. R. A bactericidal effect for human lactoferrin. Science 1977; 197:263–265
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Arnold R. R., Russell J. E., Champion W. J., Brewer M., Gauthier J. J. Bactericidal activity of human lactoferrin: differentiation from the stasis of iron deprivation. Infect Immun 1982; 35:792–799
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Arnold R. R., Brewer M., Gauthier J. J. Bactericidal activity of human lactoferrin: sensitivity of a variety of microorganisms. Infect Immun 1980; 28:893–898
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bellamy W., Takase M., Yamauchi K., Wakabayashi H., Kawase J., Tomita M. Identification of the bactericidal domain of lactoferrin. Biochem Biophys Acta 1992; 1121:130–136
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Ellison R. T., Giehl T. J., LaForce F. M. Damage of the outer membrane of enteric gram-negative bacteria by lactoferrin and transferrin. Infect Immun 1988; 56:2774–2781
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Erdei J., Forsgren A., Naidu S. Lactoferrin binds to porins OmpF and OmpC in Escherichia coli. Infect Immun 1994; 62:1236–1240
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Kuizenga A. Identification and characterization of proteins in human tear fluid. PhD Thesis 199235–36
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Wecke J., Lahav M., Ginsburg I., Giesbrecht P. Cell wall degradation of Staphylococcus aureus by lysozyme. Arch Microbiol 1982; 131:116–123
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Ellison R. T., Giehl T. J. Killing of gram-negative bacteria by lactoferrin and lysozyme. J Clin Invest 1991; 88:1080–1091
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Reynolds B. L., Rowley D. Sensitization of complement resistant bacterial strains. Nature 1969; 221:1259–1261
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Leitch E. C., Harris N. Y., Corrigan K. M., Willcox M. D. P. Identification and enumeration of staphylococci from the eye during soft contact lens wear. Optom Vis Sci (in press)
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Mirejovsky D., Patel A. S., Rodriguez D. D., Hunt T. J. Lipid adsorption onto hydrogel contact lens materials. Advantages of Nile red over oil red O in visualization of lipids. Optom Vis Sci 1991; 68:858–864
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Sack R. A., Tan K. O., Tan A. Diurnal tear cycle: evidence for a nocturnal inflammatory constitutive tear fluid. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1992; 33:626–640
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Duhaiman A. S. Purification of camel milk lysozyme and its lytic effect on Escherichia coli and Micrococccus lysodeikticus. Comp Biochem Physiol 1988; 91B:793–796
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Spik G., Cheron A., Montreuil J., Dolby J. M. Bacteriostastis of a milk-sensitive strain of Escherichia coli by immunoglobulins and iron-binding proteins in association. Immunology 1978; 35:663–671
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Carter P. Spectrophotometric determination of serum iron at the submicrogram level with a new reagent (ferrozine). Anal Biochem 1971; 40:450–458
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Miles A. A., Misra S. S., Irwin J. O. The estimation of the bactericidal power of the blood. J Hyg 1938; 38:732–748
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Spitznagel J. K. Antibiotic proteins of human neutrophils. J Clin Invest 1990; 86:1381–1386
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Thakur A., Willcox M. D. P., Morris C. A., Holden B. A. Inflammatory components of human tear fluid. Aust NZ J Ophthalmol 1996; 24:2 Suppl 13–16
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Anderson B. F., Baker H. M., Norris G. E., Rice D. W., Baker E. N. Structure of human lactoferrin: crystallographic structure analysis and refinement at 2.8 angstrom resolution. J Mol Biol 1989; 209:711–734
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Lindsay J. A., Riley T. V Staphylococcal iron requirements, siderophore production, and iron-regulated protein expression. Infect Immun 1994; 62:2309–2314
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Craig J. P., Tomlinson A. Effect of age on tear osmolality. Optom Vis Sci 1995; 72:713–717
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/00222615-47-9-837
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/00222615-47-9-837
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error