1887

Abstract

This study compared specific phenotypic and potential virulence characteristics of isolates from invasive infections and nasal carriers. Three hundred and sixty isolates were studied; 154 from septicaemia (69 line associated, 85 non-line), 79 from continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) peritonitis, 64 from bone/joint infections and 64 from healthy nasal carriers. The isolates were tested for production of enterotoxins (SE) A, B, C or E, toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) protein A, and also for lipolytic, proteolytic, fibrinolytic and haemolytic activities. In addition phage typing, crystal violet reaction, urease and galactose breakdown were studied. Seventy-one percent of isolates were enterotoxigenic. Production of SEA was significantly lower amongst the bone/joint isolates. Production of SEB, was lower among the control group compared with CAPD, bone/joint, and non-line septicaemia isolates. SEE production was higher among the bone/joint isolates compared with the CAPD and non-line septicaemias and production of TSST-1 was significantly higher among nasal isolates compared with isolates causing infection. Almost all of the isolates were lipolytic, with highest activity amongst nasal and bone/joint isolates. Fibrinolytic activity was similar in the five groups of isolates. Proteolytic activity ranged from 35 to 62% of isolates with the lowest frequency among septicaemia isolates. In all, 80–90% of isolates were haemolytic, although CAPD isolates were less likely to be haemolytic. Isolates from the control and CAPD group more frequently belonged to phage group I. TSST-1 does not appear to be an important requirement for invasive infections, but SEB may be. Proteolysis and intensity of lipolysis appear to be less important in septicaemia, and haemolysis may not be important in CAPD pertonitis.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/00222615-47-3-265
1998-03-01
2023-02-06
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/47/3/medmicro-47-3-265.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/00222615-47-3-265&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Sheagren J. N. Staphylococcus aureus. The persistent pathogen. N Engl J Med 1984; 310:1368–13731437–1442
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Eykyn S. J., Grandsden W. R., Phillips I. The causative organisms of septicaemia and their epidemiology. J Antimicrob Chemother 1990; 25: Suppl C 41–58
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Gemmell C. G. The staphylococcus-new features 100 years after its discovery. J Infect 1982; 4:5–15
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Elliot T. S. J. Line-associated bacteraemias. CDR Rev 1993; 3:R91–R96
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Al-Wali W., Baillod R., Brumfitt W., Hamilton-Miller J. M. T. Differing prognostic significance of reinfection and relapse in CAPD peritonitis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1992; 7:133–136
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Tranter H. S., Brehm R. D. The detection and aetiological significance of staphylococcal enterotoxins. Rev Med Microbiol 1994; 5:56–64
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Wieneke A. A., Roberts D., Gilbert R. J. Staphylococcal food poisoning in the United Kingdom, 1969–90. Epidemiol Infect 1993; 110:519–531
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Gemmell C. G. Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. J Med Microbiol 1995; 43:318–327
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Crass B. A., Bergdoll M. S. Toxin involvement in toxic shock syndrome. J Infect Dis 1986; 153:918–926
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Cone L. A., Woodard D. R., Byrd R. G., Schulz K., Kopp S. M., Schlievert P. M. A recalcitrant, erythematous, desquamating disorder associated with toxin-producing staphylococci in patients with AIDS. J Infect Dis 1992; 165:638–643
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Humphreys H., Keane C. T., Hone R. Enterotoxin production by Staphylococcus aureus isolates from cases of septicaemia and from healthy carriers. J Med Microbiol 1989; 28:163–172
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Røder B. L., Eriksen N. H. R., Nielsen L. P., Slotsbjerg T., Rosdahl V. T., Espersen F. No difference in enterotoxin production among Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from blood compared with strains isolated from healthy carriers. J Med Microbiol 1995; 42:43–47
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Hasegawa N., Kondo I. Isolation and virulence of a caseinase-and bound coagulase-deficient mutant of Staphylococcus aureus BB. J Infect Dis 1984; 149:538–543
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Todd J. K., Franco-Buff A., Lawellin D. W., Vasil M. L. Phenotypic distinctiveness of Staphylococcus aureus strains associated with toxic shock syndrome. Infect Immun 1984; 45:339–344
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Rollof J., Hedstrom A., Nilsson-Ehle P. Lipolytic activity of Staphylococcus aureus strains from disseminated and localized infections. Acta Path Microbiol Immunol Scand Sect B 1987; 95:109–133
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Hedstrom S. A., Nilsson-Ehle P. Trioleoylglycerol lipolysis by Staphylococcus aureus strains from recurrent furunculosis, pyomyositis, impetigo and osteomyelitis. Acta Path Microbiol Immunol Scand Sect B Microbiol 1983; 91:169–173
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Chemevskaia O. M., Zavarukhina M. A., Ermoling G. B. Variability of the pathogenicity traits of populations of staphylococci in a surgical hospital. Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol 1985; 7:29–32
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Roberts J. I., Gaston M. A. Protein A and coagulase expression in epidemic and non-epidemic Staphylococcus aureus. J Clin Pathol 1987; 40:837–840
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Freeman R., Hudson S. J., Burdess D. Crystal violet reactions of fresh clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from two British hospitals. Epidemiol Infect 1990; 105:493–500
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Lehn N., Schaller E., Wagner H., Kronke M. Frequency of toxic shock syndrome toxin and enterotoxin producing clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1995; 14:43–46
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Adesiyun A. A., Lenz W., Schaal K. P. Phage susceptibility, enterotoxigenicity and antibiograms of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from human wounds and diarrhoea. Int J Med Microbiol Virol Parasitol Infect Dis 1992; 277:250–259
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Takesue Y., Yokoyama T., Kodama T. A study on postoperative enteritis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Surg Today 1993; 23:4–8
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Kimura A., Iqarashi H., Ushioda H., Okuzumi T. Epidemiological study of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the Japanese National University and Medical College Hospitals with coagulase typing and production of enterotoxins and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1. Kansenshogaku Zasshi 1992; 66:1543–1549
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Jordens J. Z., Duckworth G. J., Williams R. J. Production of ‘virulence factors’ by ‘epidemic’ methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in vitro. J Med Microbiol 1989; 30:245–252
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Naidu S., Rao P. N., Rajyalakshmi K., Naidu A. S. Incidence of enterotoxin producing Staphylococcus aureus among pyogenic skin infections. J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol 1989; 33:277–282
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Christensson B., Hestrom S. Å. Biochemical and biological properties of Staphylococcus aureus septicaemia strains in relation to clinical characteristics. Scand J Infect Dis 1986; 18:297–303
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Reynolds D., Tranter H. S., Sage R., Hambleton P. Novel method for purification of staphylococcal enterotoxin A. Appl Environ Microbiol 1988; 54:1761–1765
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Modi N. K., Rose S. A., Tranter H. S. The effects of irradiation and temperature on the immunological activity of staphylococcal enterotoxin A. Int J Food Microbiol 1990; 11:85–92
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Larsson A., Wejaker P. E. Sjoquist. Chicken anti-protein A for the detection and capturing of protein A from Staphylococcus aureus in the presence or absence of mammalian IgG. Hybridoma 1992; 11:239–243
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Towbin H., Staehelin T., Gordon J. Electrophoretic transfer of proteins from polyacrylamide gels to nitrocellulose sheets: procedure and some applications. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1979; 76:4350–4354
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Mollby R. Isolation and properties of membrane damaging toxins. In Easmon C. S. F., Adlam C. (eds) Staphylococci and staphylococcal infections vol 2 The organism in vivo and in vitro London: Academic Press; 1983619–669
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Carlson E. C. A CO2-enhanced hemolytic activity of Staphylococcus aureus associated with toxic shock syndrome: inhibition by agar. J Infect Dis 1986; 154:186–188
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Lawrence R. C., Fryer T. F., Reiter B. Rapid method for the quantitative estimation of microbiol lipases. Nature 1967; 25:1264–1265
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Lundbeck H., Tirunarayanan M. O. Investigation on the enzymes and toxins of staphylococci. Study of the ‘egg yolk reaction’ using an agar plate assay method. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand 1966; 68:123–134
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Rollof J., Hedstrom S. A., Nilsson-Ehle P. The Tween 80 reaction does not correlate to triglyceride lipase production of Staphylococcus aureus. APMIS 1988; 96:732–734
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Collee J. G., Duguid J. P., Fraser A. G., Marmion B. P. Mackie and McCartney’s Practical medical microbiology. 3rd edn, vol 2 Tests for identification of bacteria Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 1989141–160
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Devriese L. A., van de Kerckhove . A comparison of methods used for testing staphylokinase (fibrinolysin) production in Staphylococcus strains. Antonie van Leuwenhoek 1980; 46:457–465
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Blair J. E., Williams R. E. O. Phage typing of staphylococci. Bull Wld Hlth Organ 1961; 24:771–784
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Parker M. T. The significance of phage-typing patterns in Staphylococcus aureus. In Easmon C. S. F., Adlam C. (eds) Staphylococci and staphylococcal infections vol 1 Clinical and epidemiological aspects London: Academic Press; 198333–62
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Altman G. A. Comparing groups-categorical data. Comparing groups-continuous data. In Altman G. A. Practical statistics for medical research London: Chapman and Hall; 1995179–223229–272
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Peavy D. L., Adler W. H., Smith R. T. The mitogenic effects of endotoxin and staphylococcal enterotoxin B on mouse spleen cells and human peripheral lymphocytes. J Immunol 1970; 105:1453–1458
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Fleming S. D., Iandolo J. J., Chapes S. K. Murine macrophage activation by staphylococcal enterotoxins. Infect Immun 1991; 59:4049–4055
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Fast D. J., Schlivert P. M., Nelson R. D. Nonpurulent response to toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 producing Staphylococcus aureus. Relationship to toxin-stimulated production of tumor necrosis factor. J Immunol 1988; 140:949–953
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Koyama A., Kobayashi M., Yamaguchi N. Glomerulonephritis associated with MRSA infection: a possible role of bacterial superantigen. Kidney Int 1995; 47:207–216
    [Google Scholar]
  45. De Boer M. L., Chow A. W. Toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 producing Staphylococcus aureus isolates contain the staphylococcus enterotoxin B. J Infect Dis 1994; 170:818–827
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Lee V. T. P., Chang A. H., Chow A. W. Detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin B among toxic shock syndrome (TSS) and non-TSS-associated Staphylococcus aureus isolates. J Infect Dis 1992; 116:911–915
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Bergdoll M. S. Enterotoxins. In Easmon C. S. F., Adlam C. (eds) Staphylococci and staphylococcal infections vol 2 The organism in vivo and in vitro London: Academic Press; 1983559–598
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Nagaki M., Muto Y., Ohnish H. Hepatic injury and lethal shock in galactosamine-sensitized mice induced by the superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin B. Gastroenterology 1994; 106:450–458
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Tokura Y., Yagi J., O’Malley M. Superantigenic staphylococcal exotoxins induce T-cell proliferation in the presence of Langerhan cells on class II-bearing keratinocytes and stimulate keratinocytes to produce T-cell activating cytokines. J Invest Dermatol 1994; 102:31–38
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Nagaki M., Muto Y., Ohnishi H. Hepatic injury and lethal shock in galactosamine-sensitized mice induced by the superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin B. Gastroenterology 1994; 106:450–458
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Sugiyama H., McKissic E. M., Bergdoll M. S., Heller B. Enhancement of bacterial endotoxin lethality by staphylococcal enterotoxin. J Infect Dis 1964; 114:111–118
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Naidu S., Rao P. N., Rajyalakshimi K., Naidu A. S. Incidence of enterotoxin producing Staphylococcus aureus among pyogenic skin infections. J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol 1989; 33:277–282
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Telford D. R., Morris J. A., Hughes P. The nasopharyngeal bacterial flora in sudden infant death syndrome. J Infect 1989; 18:125–130
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Koyama A., Kobayaski M., Yamaguchi N. Glomerulonephritis association with MRSA infection: a possible role of bacterial superantigen. Kidney Int 1995; 47:207–216
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Arvidson S. Genetic loci controlling the expression of virulence genes in Staphylococcus aureus. Eighth International Symposium on Staphylococci and Staphylococcal Infections; France: 1996 (Abstract)
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Betley M. J., Borst E. W., Regassa L. B. Staphylococcal enterotox-ins, toxic shock syndrome toxin and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins: a comparative study of their molecular biology. In Fleisher B. (ed) Biological significance of superantigens vol 55 Clinical immunology Basel: Karger; 19921–35
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Christensson B., Hadstrom S. A., Kronvall G. Antibody response to alpha-and beta-hemolysin from Staphylococcus aureus in patients with staphylococcal infections and in normals. Acta Pathol Microbiol Immunol Scand B 1983; 91:351–356
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Rogolsky M. Nonenteric toxins of Staphylococcus aureus. Microbiol Rev 1979; 43:320–360
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Weigershausen B. On the pharmacology of staphylococcal toxin (Wood 46). The effect of staphylococcal toxin on the isolated heart, auricles and vessels of various species. Act Biol Med Ger 1962; 9:517
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Takeuehi S., Suto T. Behaviours of a vigorous protease-producing strain of Staphylococcus aureus in the skin tissue of mice. Jpn J Microbiol 1976; 20:155–162
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Kapral F. A., O’Brien A. D., Ruff P. D., Drugan W. J. Inhibition of water absorption in the intestine by Staphylococcus aureus delta-toxin. Infect Immun 1976; 13:140–145
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Prevost G., Couppie P., Prevost P. Epidemiological data on Staphylococcus aureus strains producing synergohymenotropic toxins. J Med Micribiol 1995; 42:237–245
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Rollof J., Braconier J. H., Soderstrom C., Nilson-Ehle P. Interference of Staphylococcus aureus lipase with human granulocyte function. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1988; 7:505–510
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Porwiit-Bobr Z. Modulation of lymphocytes and immunoglobulins by serine proteinase of Staphylococcus aureus. Med Dosw Mikrobiol 1993; 45:37–40
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Baran K., Midzobrodzki J., Porwit-Bobr Z. Preliminary estimation of chemoattractant activity of staphylococcal serine proteinase in vitro. Chemoattractant activity of staphylococcal serine proteinase. Antonie van Leuwenhoek 1988; 54:85–87
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Le H. Y., Seeling G. F., Syto R. Selective proteolytic cleavage of recombinant human interleukin-4. Evidence for a critical role of the C-terminus. Biochemistry 1991; 30:9576–9582
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Arakawa T., Horan T. P., McGinley M., Rohde M. F. Effect of amino-terminal processing by Staphylococcus aureus V-8 protease on activity and structure of recombinant human interferon-gamma. J Interferon Res 1990; 10:321–329
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Hasegawa N., Kondo I. Isolation and virulence of caseinase-and bound coagulase-deficient mutant of Staphylococcus aureus BB. J Infect Dis 1984; 149:538–843
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Todd J. K., Frano-Buff A., Lawellin D. W., Vasil M. L. Phenotypic distinctiveness of Staphylococcus aureus strains associated with toxic shock syndrome. Infect Immun 1984; 45:339–344
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Sanford B. A., Thomas V. L., Ramsay M. A., Jones T. O. Characterization of clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus associated with pneumonia. J Clin Microbiol 1986; 24:131–136
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Arai K., Muto T., Yamasa M., Yokota S. Effect of the passage and storage of strains and inoculum size on the change of zone pattern types and sizes produced by protease of MRSA. Jpn J Assoc Infect Dis 1993; 67:629–634
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Hudson S. J., Freeman R., Burdess D., Cookson B. D. Crystal violet reactions of Staphylococcus aureus strains colonizing infants in the first six weeks. Epidemiol Infect 1993; 110:79–86
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/00222615-47-3-265
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/00222615-47-3-265
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error