1887

Abstract

Summary

This review compares the rates of detection of non-O157:H7 enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) with EHEC O157:H7 in outbreaks and sporadic cases of human disease by analysing Australian data and the world literature. Numerous outbreaks of disease have been attributed to EHEC O157:H7. in many studies, isolation rates of this organism have been low and attempts to seek other EHEC have not been made. Ease of isolation and identification of the O157:H7 serotype may have given the impression that this serotype was the sole organism responsible for the outbreaks. Careful review and analysis shows that serotypes other than O157:H7 also play an important role in human disease. Evidence is presented from several overseas outbreaks described in the literature, as well as from investigations of the Adelaide O111:H outbreak, that suggests an association between severity of disease and multiple infecting serotypes. While not diminishing the role of the O157:H7/H clone, this review indicates that other serotypes can be responsible for outbreaks as well as cases of sporadic human disease. the current focus on O157:H7 has major implications in terms of diagnosis, the food industry and human health.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/00222615-47-12-1039
1998-12-01
2022-01-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/47/12/medmicro-47-12-1039.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/00222615-47-12-1039&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Riley L. W., Remis R. S., Helgerson S. D. Hemorrhagic colitis associated with a rare Escherichia coli serotype. N Engl J Med 1983; 308:681–685
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Community outbreak of hemolytic uremic syndrome attributable to Escherichia coli O111:NM-South Australia 1995. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1995; 44:550–551557–558
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Pavia A. T., Nichols C. R., Green D. P. Hemolytic-uremic syndrome during an outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections in institutions for mentally retarded persons: clinical and epidemiologic observations. J Pediatr 1990; 116:544–551
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Reida P., Wolff M., Pohls H. W. An outbreak due to enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in a children’s day care centre characterized by person-to-person transmission and environmental contamination. Int J Med Microbiol Virol Parasitol Infect Dis 1994; 281:534–543
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Thomas A., Cheasty T., Frost J. A., Chart H., Smith H. R., Rowe B. Vero cytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli, particularly ser-ogroup O157, associated with human infections in England and Wales: 1992–4. Epidemiol Infect 1996; 117:1–10
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Akashi S., Joh K., Tsuji A. A severe outbreak of haemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic uraemic syndrome associated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Japan. Eur J Pediatr 1994; 153:650–655
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Chapman P. A., Siddons C. A. A comparison of immunomagnetic separation and direct culture for the isolation of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 from cases of bloody diarrhoea, non-bloody diarrhoea and asymptomatic contacts. J Med Microbiol 1996; 44:267–271
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Belongia E. A., MacDonald K. L., Parham G. L. An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 colitis associated with consumption of precooked meat patties. J Infect Dis 1991; 164:338–343
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Swerdlow D. L., Woodruff B. A., Brady R. C. A waterborne outbreak in Missouri of Escherichia coli O157:H7 associated with bloody diarrhea and death. Ann Intern Med 1992; 117:812–819
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Orr P., Lorencz B., Brown R. An outbreak of diarrhea due to verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli in the Canadian Northwest Territories. Scand J Infect Dis 1994; 26:675–684
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Rodrigue D. C., Mast E. E., Greene K. D. A university outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections associated with roast beef and an unusually benign clinical course. J Infect Dis 1995; 172:1122–1125
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Carter A. O., Borczyk A. A., Carlson J. A. K. A severe outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7-associated hemorrhagic colitis in a nursing home. N Engl J Med 1987; 317:1496–1500
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Shefer A. M., Koo D., Werner S. B. A cluster of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections with the hemolytic-uremic syndrome and death in California. A mandate for improved surveillance. West J Med 1996; 165:15–19
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Ostroff S. M., Griffin P. M., Tauxe R. V. A statewide outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections in Washington State. Am J Epidemiol 1990; 132:239–247
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Griffin P. M., Ostroff S. M., Tauxe R. V. Illnesses associated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections: a broad clinical spectrum. Ann Intern Med 1988; 109:705–712
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Shah S., Hoffman R., Shillam P., Wilson B. Prolonged fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during an outbreak at a day care center. Clin Infect Dis 1996; 23:835–836
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Roberts C. L., Mshar P. A., Cartter M. L. The role of heightened surveillance in an outbreak of Escherichia coli O157.H7. Epidemiol Infect 1995; 115:447–454
    [Google Scholar]
  18. McCall B., Strain D., Hills S. An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157 infection on the Gold Coast. Comm Dis Intell 1996; 20:236–239
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Sramkova L., Bielaszewska M., Janda J., Blahova K., Hausner O. Vero cytotoxin-producing strains of Escherichia coli in children with haemolytic uraemic syndrome and diarrhoea in Czechoslovakia. Infection 1990; 18:204–209
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Park C. H., Gates K. M., Vandel N. M., Hixon D. L. Isolation of Shiga-like toxin producing Escherichia coli (O157 and non-O157) in a community hospital. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 1996; 26:69–72
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Salmon R. L., Farrell I. D., Hutchison J. G. P. A christening party outbreak of haemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic uraemic syndrome associated with Escherichia coli O157:H7. Epidemiol Infect 1989; 103:249–254
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Lake-associated outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7-Illinois, 1995. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1996; 45:437–439
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Karch H., Janetzki-Mittmann C., Aleksie S., Datz M. Isolation of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 strains from patients with hemolytic-uremic syndrome by using immunomagnetic separation, DNA-based methods, and direct culture. J Clin Microbiol 1996; 34:516–519
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Tanaka H., Ohseto M., Yamashita Y. [Bacteriological investigation on an outbreak of acute enteritis associated with verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli 111:H.]. Kansenshogaku Zasshi 1989; 63:1187–1194
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Gunzburg S., Gracey M., Forbes D., Hewitt I., Bettelheim K. A. Haemolytic-uraemic syndrome and verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Med J Aust 1988; 149:54–55
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Kodoh Y., Kai A. Outbreaks of VTEC infection, 1984–1994. Notiziario 1st Sup Sanità 1995; 8:2–3
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Caprioli A., Luzzi I., Rosmini F. Communitywide outbreak of hemolytic-uremic syndrome associated with non-O157 verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli. J Infect Dis 1994; 169:208–211
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Capek I., Ilef D. Une singulière épidémie dans l’Oise. Bull Epidemiol Hebdomadaire 1993; 48:221–222
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Banatvala N., Debeukelaer M. M., Griffin P. M. Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli O111 and associated hemolytic-uremic syndrome: a family outbreak. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1996; 15:1008–1011
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Giles C., Sangster G., Smith J. Epidemic gastro-enteritis of infants in Aberdeen during 1947. Arch Dis Child 1949; 24:45–53
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Belnap W. D., O’Donnell J. J. Epidemic gastroenteritis due to Escherichia coli O-111. A review of the literature with the epidemiology, bacteriology, and clinical findings of a large outbreak. J Pediatr 1955; 47:178–193
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Paton A. W., Ratcliff R. M., Doyle R. M. Molecular microbiological investigation of an outbreak of hemolytic-uremic syndrome caused by dry fermented sausage contaminated with shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli. J Clin Microbiol 1996; 34:1622–1627
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Goldwater P. N., Bettelheim K. A. An outbreak of hemolytic uremic syndrome due to Escherichia coli O157:H: Or was it?. Emerg Infect Dis 1996; 2:72–73
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Goldwater P. N., Bettelheim K. A. The role of enterohaemorrhagic E. coli serotypes other than O157:H7 as causes of disease. In Karmali M. A., Goglio A. G. (eds) Recent advances in verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli infections (Excerpta Medica International Congress Series 1072) Amsterdam: Elsevier Science; 199457–60
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Goldwater P. N., Bettelheim K. A. The role of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli serotypes other than O157:H7 as causes of disease in Australia. Commun Dis Intell 1995; 19:2–4
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Wade W. G., Thom B. T., Evans N. Cytotoxic enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Lancet 1979; ii:1235–1236
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Thomas A., Chart H., Cheasty T., Smith H. R., Frost J. A., Rowe B. Vero cytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli, particularly sero-group O157, associated with human infections in the United Kingdom: 1989–91. Epidemiol Infect 1993; 110:591–600
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Bockemühl J., Aleksic S., Karch H. Serological and biochemical properties of Shiga-like toxin (verocytotoxin)-producing strains of Escherichia coli, other than O-group 157, from patients in Germany. Int J Med Microbiol Virol Parasitol Infect Dis 1992; 276:189–195
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Kudoh Y., Kai A., Obata H. Epidemiological surveys on verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli infections in Japan. In Karmali M. A., Goglio A. G. (eds) Recent advances in verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli infections (Excerpta Medica International Congress Series 1072.) Amsterdam: Elsevier Science; 199453–56
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Wilson M. W., Bettelheim K. A. Cytotoxic Escherichia coli serotypes. Lancet 1980; i:201
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Bielaszewska M., Janda J., Bláhova K., Srámkova L., Havlík J., Potužník V. Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli in children with hemolytic uremic syndrome and diarrhea in the Czech Republic. In Karmali M. A., Goglio A. G. (eds) Recent advances in verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli infections (Excerpta Medica International Congress Series 1072.) Amsterdam: Elsevier Science; 199437–40
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Mariani-Kurkdjian P., Denamur E., Milon A. Identification of a clone of Escherichia coli O103:H2 as a potential agent of hemolytic-uremic syndrome in France. J Clin Microbiol 1993; 31:296–301
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Tarr P. I., Fouser L. S., Stapleton A. E. Hemolytic-uremic syndrome in a six-year-old girl after a urinary tract infection with Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli O103:H2. N Engl J Med 1996; 335:635–638
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Anon Outbreak of acute gastroenteritis attributable to Escherichia coli serotype O104:H21-Helena, Montana, 1994. JAMA 1995; 274:529–530
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Uchida H., Kanegane H., Yoshiya K. [Four cases of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) associated with serotype O165 verotoxin producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) identified by LPS-solid phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)]. Kansenshogaku Zasshi 1995; 69:678–683
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Bitzan M., Karch H., Maas M. G. Clinical and genetic aspects of Shiga-like toxin production in traditional entero-pathogenic Escherichia coli. Zentralbl Bakteriol 1991; 274:496–506
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Piérard D., Stevens D., Moriau L., Lior H., Lauwers S. Isolation and virulence factors of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli in human stool samples. Clin Microbiol Infect 1997; 3:531–540
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Karmali M. A., Steele B. T., Petric M., Lim C. Sporadic cases of haemolytic-uraemic syndrome associated with faecal cytotoxin and cytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli in stools. Lancet 1983; 1:619–620
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Summary of notifiable diseases, United States 1995. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1996; 44:1–87
    [Google Scholar]
  50. World Health Organization The WHO consultation on the prevention and control of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). Geneva, 28 April-1 May 1997 WHO; Geneva: 1997
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Goldwater P. N., Bettelhem K. A. An unusual anaemia associated with enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O113:H21 infection, a verocytotoxin-2/shiga toxin-2 producing serotype. J Infection 1998 (in press)
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/00222615-47-12-1039
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/00222615-47-12-1039
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error