Bacterial entry into intestinal host cells is the result of a fairly sophisticated manipulation of host cell machinery by the pathogens. To study further the potential cell target of spp., the in-vitro entry of strains into intestinal cells was examined in relation to the metabolism, proliferation and differentiation of the cells by the alamarBlue assay, [H] thymidine incorporation, and brush border-associated enzyme activities, respectively. The study showed that cell metabolism was not involved in the entry of in three cell models (two human and one porcine). On the other hand, entry was closely related to the proliferation process and poorly related to the differentiation state of the cells. The use of mutants lacking invasion proteins showed that InIA and InIB acted in synergy to mediate the entry of into proliferative cells, whereas InIA alone seemed to be involved in the entry into non-proliferative cells. These two entry pathways could correspond to the two cellular processes used by to enter proliferative and non-proliferative cells, as suggested by the use of cytochalasin D, nocodazole, chloroquine and monodansylcadaverine. Taken together, we propose a hypothesis in which the entry of is mediated by interaction between randomly distributed E-cadherin on the surface of proliferative cells. In contrast, the entry into non-proliferative cells may involve pp60, a proto-oncogenic tyrosine kinase signal that modifies E-cadherin localisation. In conclusion, these results suggest that may preferentially enter crypt cells by a microfilament-dependent process, whereas the few bacteria that infect villus cells enter by an E-cadherin-internalin interaction that mediates microtubule-dependent endocytosis.


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