Forty-eight strains of serotype Gallinarum of biotypes Gallinarum and Pullorum were characterised by three chromosomally based typing methods. The patterns obtained were compared with those of strains of eight other serotypes of of O serogroup D. The same II and I IS patterns were commonly observed among strains of both biotypes and the three I ribotypes of serotype Gallinarum strains differed in only one or two bands, supporting the view that members of these two biotypes are closely related. The same IS patterns were also commonly observed among strains of serotype Enteritidis, indicating its evolutionary relationship with serotype Gallinarum. I pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns divided strains into 24 types. Based on a similarity analysis, two clusters were formed. One contained the majority of biotype Gallinarum strains and two atypical strains of Pullorum; the other contained strains of biotype Pullorum and an otherwise typical strain of biotype Gallinarum. Two atypical strains of biotype Pullorum remained unclustered by PFGE analysis. The grouping of strains differed according to the typing method used, but the majority of strains within each of the biotypes Gallinarum and Pullorum were very similar by the chromosomal markers analysed.


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