The reported incidence of fungal infections associated with non- species from the genus is increasing. Most of these infections occur in immunocompromised patients, particularly those infected with HIV. The role of molecular genetic techniques alongside the existing techniques for the identification and typing of these organisms is discussed. Species-specific genomic DNA fragments cloned from and have been developed for identification and strain typing. Analysis of tRNA profiles has been shown to be effective for the identification of and A PCR method employing primers complimentary to large ribosomal subunit genes and the lanosterol-α-demethylase gene has been applied for several species, including and Strain typing by comparison of genomic DNA fingerprints has been demonstrated for and following hybridisation analysis with species-specific probes. Synthetic oligonucleotide probes—which do not have to be species-specific and which can detect minor polymorphisms—have also been used for strain typing of isolates of several non- species. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) has also been used for analysis of and isolates. The potential for the application of these and other techniques to spp. taxonomy—and the example of a recently discovered novel species, —is discussed.


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