1887

Abstract

Summary

Three hundred isolates of from wound swabs were examined for the production of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1). The isolates were collected from community patients, surgical inpatients and from patients in the Regional Burns Unit, Booth Hall Children’s Hospital, Manchester. The overall incidence of toxin production was 17% and there was no significant variation between the sources of the strains. All 55 TSST-1-producing strains were grown in sublethal concentrations of five topical antimicrobial compounds and the level of toxin produced was determined and compared with the amount produced in a control broth after incubation for 24 h. The effects of sublethal concentrations of the compounds on TSST-1 production were strain dependent; some compounds tended to increase production (at least four-fold) and some tended to decrease production (at least fourfold). Some of the strains showed an increase in toxin production in the presence of chlorhexidine gluconate/cetrimide solution and silver sulphadiazine cream whereas 18%, 42% and 47% of the strains showed a decrease in toxin production in the presence of povidone iodine solution, stabilised hydrogen peroxide cream and mupirocin ointment, respectively. Preliminary results suggest that silver sulphadiazine cream induces toxin formation earlier in the growth cycle.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/00222615-41-6-408
1994-12-01
2024-06-25
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/41/6/medmicro-41-6-408.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/00222615-41-6-408&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Todd J, Fishault M, Kapral F, Welch T. Toxic-shock syndrome associated with phage-group-1 staphylococci. Lancet 1978; 2:1116–1118
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Schrock CG. Disease alert. JAMA 1980; 243:1231
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Reingold AL, Hargrett NT, Dan BB, Shands KN, Strickland BY, Broome CV. Nonmenstrual toxic shock syndrome: a review of 130 cases. Ann Intern Med 1982; 96:871–874
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Frame JD, Eve MD, Hackett MEJ. et al. The toxic shock syndrome in burned children. Burns 1985; 11:234–241
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Egan WC, Clark WR. The toxic shock syndrome in a burn victim. Burns 1988; 14:135–138
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Yagoob M, McClelland P, Murray AE, Mostafa SM, Ahmad R. Staphylococcal enterotoxins A and C causing toxic shock syndrome. J Infect 1990; 20:176–178
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Milner LS, DeJager J, Thomson PD, Doehring RO. Toxic shock syndrome caused by staphylococcal enterotoxin B. A report of 2 cases in children. S Afr Med J 1983; 63:822–824
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bergdoll MS, Crass BA, Reiser RF, Robbins RN, Davis JP. A new staphylococcal enterotoxin, enterotoxin F, associated with Toxic-Shock-Syndrome Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Lancet 1981; 1:1017–1021
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Arbuthnott JP. Toxic shock syndrome: a multisystem conundrum. Microbiol Sciences 1988; 5:13–16
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Kass EH, Kendrick MI, Tsai YC, Parsonnet J. Interaction of magnesium ion, oxygen tension, and temperature in the production of toxic-shock-syndrome toxin-1 by Staphylococcus aureus. J Infect Dis 1987; 155:812–815
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Wong ACL, Bergdoll MS. Effect of environmental conditions on production of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 by Staphylococcus aureus. Infect Immun 1990; 58:1026–1029
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Sarafian SK, Morse SA. Environmental factors affecting toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) synthesis. J Med Microbiol 1987; 24:75–81
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Reiser RF, Denzin LK, Bergdoll MS. Effects of blood and different media on the production of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 by Staphylococcus aureus in the tampon sac method. J Clin Microbiol 1988; 26:2672–2674
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Kreiswirth BN, Projan SJ, Schlievert PM, Novick RP. Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin 1 is encoded by a variable genetic element. Rev Infect Dis 1989; 11: Suppl 1 S83–S89
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Neill RJ, Fanning GR, Delahoz F, Wolff R, Gemski P. Oligonucleotide probes for detection and differentiation of Staphylococcus aureus strains containing genes for enterotoxins A, B, and C and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1. J Clin Microbiol 1990; 28:1514–1518
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Espersen F, Baek L, Kjaeldgaard P, Rosdahl VT. Detection of staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 by a latex agglutination kit. Scand J Infect Dis 1988; 20:449–450
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Vergeront JM, Stolz SJ, Crass BA, Nelson DB, Davis JP, Bergdoll MS. Prevalence of serum antibody to staphylococcal enterotoxin F among Wisconsin residents: implications for toxic-shock syndrome. J Infect Dis 1983; 148:692–698
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Settle JAD. Burns—the first five days Smith and Nephew Pharmaceuticals; 1986
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Recsei P, Kreiswirth B, O’Reilly M, Schlievert P, Gruss A, Novick RP. Regulation of exoprotein gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus by agr. Mol Gen Genet 1986; 202:58–61
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Modak SM, Fox CL. Binding of silver sulphadiazine to the cellular components of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Biochem Pharm 1973; 22:2391–2404
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Richards RME, Taylor RB, Xing DKL. An evaluation of the antibacterial activities of combinations of sulfonamides, trimethoprim, dibromopropamidine, and silver nitrate compared with their uptakes by selected bacteria. J Pharm Sci 1991; 80:861–867
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Wyzor MS, Zollinhofer RE. On the mode of action of Silver sulphadiazine. Pathol Microbiol 1972; 38:296–308
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Rosenkranz HS, Carr HS. Silver sulphadiazine: effect on the growth and metabolism of bacteria. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1972; 2:367–372
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Hughes J, Mellows G. On the mode of action of pseudomonic acid: inhibition of protein synthesis in Staphylococcus aureus. J Antibiot 1978; 31:330–335
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/00222615-41-6-408
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/00222615-41-6-408
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error