1887

Abstract

SUMMARY

Gonococci in pus appear in in which they are surrounded by organelles and granules derived from the host cells in which they multiplied. These clusters have been named because (1) the cocci multiply within them, (2) the whole complex makes contact with epithelial cells, (3) the cocci in the units are not recognised by polymorphs as long as the coating of granules is dense enough, and (4) the cocci are probably protected against humoral defence mechanisms. During multiplication of bacteria in infectious units, soluble antigenic material is probably produced. No morphological evidence of multiplication of gonococci outside infectious units was observed in pus from patients with gonorrhoea. Attempts to reproduce typical infectious units in animal models have so far failed.

The identity of the surrounding granular coating was established morphologically and with appropriate sera labelled with I and horseradish peroxidase. It is proposed that the mechanism of gonococcal pathogenicity is primarily based on the internal disorganisation of the regulatory mechanism of human macrophages. A sequence of events in the infection is discussed.

The anatomical changes observed in subcutaneously implanted plastic chambers in guinea-pigs infected with gonococci may be attributable to partial interference with the internal regulation of phagocytes. The effect of drugs on bacterial counts in the chamber cavity was studied. Under the influence of colchicine the number of colony-forming units increased 100 times within 8 h; vinblastine was without effect. Neither of these drugs had any effect on the growth of gonococci In studies by immune electron microscopy with sera from patients with gonococcal septicaemia, IgG was shown to react strongly with the gonococcal surface, free endotoxin, ring structures (pits) liberated from the lipopolysaccharide backbone and with unspecified soluble antigenic material. The detection of pilar antibodies in these sera was rare.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/00222615-10-3-347
1977-08-01
2021-10-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/10/3/medmicro-10-3-347.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/00222615-10-3-347&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Arko R. J. 1972; Neisseria gonorrhoeae: experimental infection of laboratory animals. Science, N. Y 177:1200
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Arko R. J. 1974; An immunologic model in laboratory animals for the study of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J. infect. Dis 129:451
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Arko R. J., Duncan W. P., Brown W. J., Peacock W. L., Tomizawa T. 1976; Immunity in infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae: duration and serological response in the chimpanzee. J. infect. Dis 133:441
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Arko R. J., Kraus S. J., Brown W. J., Buchanan T. M., Kuhn U. S. G. 1974; Neisseria gonorrhoeae: effect of systemic immunisation on resistance of chimpanzees to urethral infection. J. infect. Dis 130:160
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Avrameas S., Ternynck T. 1971; Peroxidase labelled antibody and Fab conjugates with enhanced intracellular penetration. Immunochemistry 8:1175
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Baggioloni M., Hirsch J. G., De Duve C. 1970; Further biochemical and morphological studies of granule fractions from rabbit heterophil leukocytes. J. Cell Biol 45:586
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bullen J. J. 1975; A new technique for recovering bacteria stored in liquid nitrogen. J. gen. Microbiol 89:205
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Burdett I. D. J., Murray R. G. E. 1974; Septum formation in Escherichia coli: characterization of septal structure and the effects of antibiotics on cell division. J. Bad 119:303
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Caro L. G., van Tubergen R. P., Kolb J. A. 1962; High-resolution autoradiography. Methods. /. Cell Biol 15:173
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Cohn Z. A., Wiener E. 1963; The particulate hydrolases of macrophages. I. Comparative enzymology, isolation, and properties. J. exp. Med 118:991
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Depierre J. W., Karnovsky M. L. 1973; Isolation of a nuclear fraction from guinea pig polymorphonuclear leukocytes after controlled hypotonic homogenization. Biochem. biophys. Acta 320:205
    [Google Scholar]
  12. DeVoe I. W. 1976; Egestion of degraded meningococci by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. J.Bact 125:258
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Gibbs D. L., Roberts R. B. 1975; The interaction in vitro between human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and Neisseria gonorrhoeae cultivated in the chick embryo. J. exp. Med 141:155
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Hunter W. M. 1973; Radioimmunoassay. In Handbook of experimental immunology 2nd ed., edited by Weir D. M. Oxford:17.1
    [Google Scholar]
  15. James-Holmquest A. N., Swanson J., Buchanan T. M., Wende R. D., Williams R. P. 1974; Differential attachment by piliated and nonpiliated Neisseria gonorrhoeae to human sperm. Infect. Immun 9:897
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Jephcott A. E., Reyn A., Birch-Andersen A. 1971; Neisseria gonorrhoeae. III Demonstration of presumed appendages to cells from different colony types. Acta path, microbiol. scand B79:437
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Jollfes P. 1962; Lysozyme from rabbit spleen and dog spleen. In Methods in enzymology edited by Colowick S. P., Kaplan N. O. New York: vol 5:137
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Kellogg D. S., Cohen I. R., Norins L. C., Schroeter A. L., Reising G. 1968; Neisseria gonorrhoeae. II Colonial variation and pathogenicity during 35 months in vitro. J. Bad 96:596
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Kellogg D. S., Peacock W. L. jr, Deacon W. E., Brown L., Pirkle C. I. 1963; Neisseria gonorrhoeae. I. Virulence genetically linked to clonal variation. J. Bad 85:1274
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Malawista S. E., Bodel P. T. 1967; The dissociation by colchicine of phagocytosis from increased oxygen consumption in human leukocytes. J. clin. Invest 46:786
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Michell R. H., Karnovsky M. J., Karnovsky M. L. 1970; The distributions of some granule-associated enzymes in guinea-pig polymorphonuclear leucocytes. Biochem. J 116:207
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Novotny P., Brookes J. E. 1975; The use of Bordetella pertussis preserved in liquid nitrogen as a challenge suspension in the Kendrick mouse protection test. J. biol. Stand 3:11
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Novotny P., Short J. A., Walker P. D. 1975; An electron-microscope study of naturally occurring and cultured cells of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J. med. Microbiol 8:413
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Novotny P., Turner W. H. 1975; Immunological heterogeneity of pili of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J. gen. Microbiol 89:87
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Novotny P., Turner W. H., Harris J. R. W., MacLennan I. P. B. 1975; Serology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae pili as a possible tool in the epidemiology of gonorrhoea. Proc. Soc. gen. Microbiol 3:58
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Ofek I., Beachey E. H., Bisno A. L. 1974; Resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to phagocytosis: relationship to colonial morphology and surface pili. J. infect. Dis 129:310
    [Google Scholar]
  27. OvCinnikov N. M., Delektorskij V. V. 1971; Electron microscope studies of gonococci in the urethral secretions of patients with gonorrhoea. Br. J. vener. Dis 47:419
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Pelc S. R., Coombes J. D., Budd G. C. 1961; On the adaptation of autoradiographic techniques for use with the electron microscope. Expl. Cell Res 24:192
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Pesanti E. L., Axline S. G. 1975; Colchicine effects on lysosomal enzyme induction and intracellular degradation in the cultivated macrophage. J. exp. Med 141:1030
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Punsalang A. P., Sawyer W. D. 1973; Role of pili in the virulence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Infect. Immun 8:255
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Quie P. G. 1975; Pathology of bactericidal power of neutrophils. Seminars in Haematology 12:143
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Rabinowitz Y. 1964; Separation of lymphocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes on glass columns, including tissue culture observations. Blood 23:811
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Smith H. 1964; Microbial behaviour in natural and artificial environments. In Microbial behaviour “ in vivo ” and “ in vitro ”, Symposium 14, Society for General Microbiology. Cambridge p 1
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Smith H. 1972; The little-known determinants of microbial pathogenicity. In Microbial pathogenicity in man and animals, Symposium 22, Society for General Microbiology Cambridge University Press;1
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Smith L. DS. 1949; Clostridia in gas gangrene. Bad. Rev 13:233
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Swanson J. 1972; Studies on gonococcus infection. II. Freeze-fracture, freeze-etch studies of gonococci. J. exp. Med 136:1258
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Swanson J. 1973; Studies on gonococcus infection. IV. Pili: their role in attachment of gonococci to tissue culture cells. J. exp. Med 137:571
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Swanson J., Kraus S. J., Gotschlich E. C. 1971; Studies on gonococcus infection. I. Pili and zones of adhesion: their relation to gonococcal growth patterns. J. exp. Med 134:886
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Swanson J., Sparks E., Young D., King G. 1975; Studies on gonococcus infection. X. Pili and leukocyte association factor as mediators of interactions between gonococci and eukaryotic cells in vitro. Infect. Immun 11:1352
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Thomas D. W., Hill J. C., Tyeryar F. J. JR 1973; Interaction of gonococci with phagocytic leukocytes from men and mice. Infect. Immun 8:98
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Thongthai C., Sawyer W. D. 1973; Studies on the virulence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Relation of colonial morphology and resistance to phagocytosis by polymorpho-nuclear leukocytes. Infect. Immun 7:373
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Turner W. H., Novotny P. 1976; The inability of Neisseria gonorrhoeae pili to confer immunity in subcutaneous guinea-pig chambers. J. gen. Microbiol 92:224
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Van Furth R., Schuit H. R. E., Hijmans W. 1966; The formation of immunoglobulins by human tissues in vitro. I The methods and their specificity Immunology:1
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Veale D. R., Smith H., Witt K. 1975; Penetration of penicillin into human phagocytes containing gonococci. Lancet 1:306
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Waitkins S. A. 1975; Effect of tissue culture cells in promoting prolonged survival of N. gonorrhoeae in artificial subcutaneous cavities of mice. Br. J. vener. Dis 51:376
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Ward M. E., Watt P. J. 1972; Adherence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to urethral mucosal cells: an electron-microscopic study of human gonorrhoea. J. infect. Dis 126:601
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Ward M. E., Watt P. J., Robertson J. N. 1974; The human fallopian tube: a laboratory model for gonococcal infection. J. infect. Dis 129:650
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Wasserman E., Levine L. 1961; Quantitative microcomplement fixation and its use in the study of antigenic structure by specific antigen-antibody inhibition. J. Immun 87:290
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Witt K., Veale D. R., Smith H. 1976; Resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to ingestion and digestion by phagocytes of human buffy coat. J. med. Microbiol 9:1
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/00222615-10-3-347
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/00222615-10-3-347
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error