This study examined polymorphisms in the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) gene of isolates from 27 patients with pneumonia (PCP) in Japan. Four substitution sites with two synonymous and two non-synonymous changes were found. Two synonymous substitutions at nucleotide positions 540 and 312 were identified in one and 13 patients, respectively. Two amino acid substitutions (Ala67Val, Cys166Tyr) were found in two different patients. No linkage of amino acid substitutions in DHFR to those in dihydropteroate synthase was observed. The two patients whose isolates showed non-synonymous DHFR mutations were not exposed to DHFR inhibitors before they developed PCP and were treated successfully with co-trimoxazole.


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