and are associated with the development of dental caries. These bacteria were detected by PCR and then their presence was compared with the incidence of dental caries in 77 Japanese pre-school children. Plaque samples were collected from all erupted tooth sites in the subjects, aged 3–5 years old and each with primary dentition, with a sterile toothbrush. A dental examination was performed for dmft (decayed, missing, filled, total) with the WHO caries diagnostic criteria. In all subjects, the prevalence of and was 72.8% and 61.1%, respectively; 19 (24.7%) were positive for alone, 10 (13.0%) were positive for alone, 37 (48.1%) were positive for both and , and 11 (14.3%) were negative for both and . The dmft scores of children positive for both and were significantly higher than those positive for alone. These results indicate that children harbouring both and have a significantly higher incidence of dental caries than those with alone.


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