1887

Abstract

Bacteriocins produced by mutans streptococci are known as mutacins. In this study 16 broadly active mutacin-producing strains from New Zealand, North America and Europe were classified into four groups (A–D) on the basis of differences in their activity in deferred antagonism tests against either the homologous producer strain (to test for presence of self-immunity) or indicator strains 46 and TE1. Two of the strains included in the study (UA140 and UA96) were representatives of the group I and II mutacin producer strains previously described by Caufield and co-workers. One of the New Zealand isolates of group A ( strain N) appeared to produce inhibitory activity similar to that of the group I prototype strain UA140. Four other New Zealand isolates of group B ( strains M19, M34, B34 and D14) had mutacin II-like activity. The group B mutacin producers differed from the group A mutacin producers in their additional activity against 46. Seven strains (M46, B46, B57, M12, M28, B28 and 13M) were distinguished from the group A and group B mutacin producers in that they inhibited TE1. These were called group C mutacin producers. Strains H7 and H23 resembled the group C strains in their action on both indicator strains TE1 and 46. However, these two strains failed to exhibit immunity to their own inhibitory products in the deferred antagonism test and were separately classified as group D mutacin producers. Phylogenetic analysis of the strains by several genotypic and phenotypic characteristics revealed that the mutacin groups were associated with distinct evolutionary lineages of .

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/0022-1317-51-11-941
2002-11-01
2019-11-12
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jmm/51/11/941.html?itemId=/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/0022-1317-51-11-941&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Emilson C-G, Krasse B. Support for and implications of the specific plaque hypothesis. Scand J Dent Res 1985;; 93: 96–104.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Loesche WJ. Role of Streptococcus mutans in human dental decay. Microbiol Rev 1986;; 50: 353–380.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bratthall D. The global epidemiology of mutans streptococci. In: Johnson NW (ed) Dental caries. Risk markers for oral diseases, vol I.Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. 1991:; 287–312.
  4. Balakrishnan M, Simmonds RS, Tagg JR. Dental caries is a preventable infectious disease. Aust Dent J 2000;; 45: 235–245.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Tagg JR, Dajani AS, Wannamaker LW. Bacteriocin of gram-positive bacteria. Bacteriol Rev 1976;; 40: 722–756.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Berkowitz RJ, Jordan HV. Similarity of bacteriocins of Streptococcus mutans from mother and infant. Arch Oral Biol 1975;; 20: 725–730.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Rogers AH. Bactericinogeny and the properties of some bacteriocins of Streptococcus mutans. Arch Oral Biol 1976;; 21: 99–104.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Berkowitz RJ, Jones P. Mouth-to-mouth transmission of the bacterium Streptococcus mutans between mother and child. Arch Oral Biol 1985;; 30: 377–379.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Crooks M, James SM, Tagg JR. Relationship of bacteriocin-like inhibitor production to the pigmentation and hemolytic activity of mutans streptococci. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A 1987;; 263: 541–547.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Fabio U, Bondi M, Manicardi G, Messi P, Neglia R. Production of bacteriocin-like substances by human oral streptococci. Microbiologica 1987;; 10: 363–370.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Ikeda T, Kurita T, Hirasawa M. Suppression of Streptococcus sobrinus 6715 (g) in plaques by Streptococcus mutans 32K (c). J Oral Pathol 1988;; 17: 471–474.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Alaluusua S, Takei T, Ooshima T, Hamada S. Mutacin activity of strains isolated from children with varying levels of mutans streptococci and caries. Arch Oral Biol 1991;; 36: 251–255.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Azevedo RVP, Zelante F. Streptococci of the mutans group: confirmation of intrafamilial transmission by mutacin typing. Braz Dent J 1994;; 5: 27–34.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Grönroos L, Saarela M, Mättö J, Tanner-Salo U, Vuorela A, Alaluusua S. Mutacin production by Streptococcus mutans may promote transmission of bacteria from mother to child. Infect Immun 1998;; 66: 2595–2600.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Kelstrup J, Gibbons RJ. Bacteriocins from human and rodent streptococci. Arch Oral Biol 1969;; 14: 251–258.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Kelstrup J, Funder-Nielsen TD. Synthesis of bacteriocins in liquid cultures of Streptococcus mutans. J Biol Buccale 1977;; 5: 99–106.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Bondi M, Neglia RG, Messi P, Manicardi G, Fabio U. Streptococcus mutans: classification in bacteriocin-types. Microbiologica 1991;; 14: 223–228.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Morency H, Trahan L, Lavoie MC. Preliminary grouping of mutacins. Can J Microbiol 1995;; 41: 826–831.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Caufield PW, Childers NK, Allen DN, Hansen JB. Distinct bacteriocin groups correlate with different groups of Streptococcus mutans plasmids. Infect Immun 1985;; 48: 51–56.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Caufield PW, Childers NK, Allen DN.et al. Plasmids in Streptococcus mutans: usefulness as epidemiological markers and association with mutacins. In: Hamada S, Michalek SM, Kiyono H, Menaker L, McGhee JR (eds) Molecular microbiology and immunobiology of Streptococcus mutans. Amsterdam, Elsevier Science Publishers. 1986:; 217223.
  21. Qi F, Chen P, Caufield PW. Purification and biochemical characterization of mutacin I from the group I strain of Streptococcus mutans, CH43, and genetic analysis of the mutacin I biosynthesis genes. Appl Environ Microbiol 2000;; 66: 3221–3229.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Novák J, Caufield PW, Miller EJ. Isolation and biochemical characterization of a novel lantibiotic mutacin from Streptococcus mutans. J Bacteriol 1994;; 176: 4316–4320.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Qi F, Chen P, Caufield PW. Purification of mutacin III from group III Streptococcus mutans UA787 and genetic analyses of mutacin III biosynthesis genes. Appl Environ Microbiol 1999;; 65: 3880–3887.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Qi F, Chen P, Caufield PW. The group I strain of Streptococcus mutans, UA140, produces both the lantibiotic mutacin I and a nonlantibiotic bacteriocin, mutacin IV. Appl Environ Microbiol 2001;; 67: 15–21.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Balakrishnan M, Simmonds RS, Carne A, Tagg JR. Streptococcus mutans strain N produces a novel low molecular mass non-lantibiotic bacteriocin. FEMS Microbiol Lett 2000;; 183: 165–169.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Tagg JR, Bannister LV. `Fingerprinting’ β-haemolytic streptococci by their production of and sensitivity to bacteriocine-like inhibitors. J Med Microbiol 1979;; 12: 397–411.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Balakrishnan M, Simmonds RS, Tagg JR. Diverse activity spectra of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances having activity against mutans streptococci. Caries Res 2001;; 35: 75–80.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Rogers AH. Bacteriocin patterns of strains belonging to various serotypes of Streptococcus mutans. Arch Oral Biol 1976;; 21: 243–249.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Guggenheim B. Streptococci of dental plaques. Caries Res 1968;; 2: 147–163.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. van Palenstein Helderman WH, Ijsseldijk M, Huis in 'T Veld JHJ. A selective medium for the two major subgroups of the bacterium Streptococcus mutans isolated from human dental plaque and saliva. Arch Oral Biol 1983;; 28: 599–603.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Shklair IL, Keene HJ. A biochemical scheme for the separation of the five varieties of Streptococcus mutans. Arch Oral Biol 1974;; 19: 1079–1081.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Kilian M, Mikkelsen L, Henrichsen J. Taxonomic study of viridans streptococci: description of Streptococcus gordonii sp.nov. and emended descriptions of Streptococcus sanguis (White and Niven 1946), Streptococcus oralis (Bridge and Senath 1982) and Streptococcus mitis (Andrewes and Horder 1906). Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989;; 39: 471–484.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Mikkelsen L, Theilade E, Poulsen K. Abiotrophia species in early dental plaque. Oral Microbiol Immunol 2000;; 15: 263–268.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Helmig R, Uldbjerg N, Boris J, Kilian M. Clonal analysis of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from infants with neonatal sepsis or meningitis and their mothers and from healthy pregnant women. J Infect Dis 1993;; 168: 904–909.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Selander RK, Caugant DA, Ochman H, Musser JM, Gilmour MN, Whittam TS. Methods of multilocus enzyme electrophoresis for bacterial population genetics and systematics. Appl Environ Microbiol 1986;; 51: 873–884.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Ushiro I, Lumb SM, Aduse-Opoku J, Ferretti JJ, Russell RRB. Chromosomal deletions in melibiose-negative isolates of Streptococcus mutans. J Dent Res 1991;; 70: 1422–1426.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Kumar S, Tamura K, Jakobsen IB, Nei M. Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis software. MEGA2. Tempe, AZ, Arizona State University. 2001.
  38. Hillman JD, Johnson KP, Yaphe BI. Isolation of a Streptococcus mutans strain producing a novel bacteriocin. Infect Immun 1984;; 44: 141–144.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Parrot M, Caufield PW, Lavoie MC. Preliminary characterization of four bacteriocins from Streptococcus mutans. Can J Microbiol 1990;; 36: 123–130.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Van Loveren C, Buijs JF, ten Cate JM. Similarity of bacteriocin activity profiles of mutans streptococci within the family when the children acquire the strains after the age of 5. Caries Res 2000;; 34: 481–485.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Weerkamp A, Vogels GD, Skotnicki M. Antagonistic substances produced by streptococci from human dental plaque and their significance in plaque ecology. Caries Res 1977;; 11: 245–256.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Hamada S, Ooshima T. Inhibitory spectrum of a bacteriocinlike substance (mutacin) produced by some strains of Streptococcus mutans. J Dent Res 1975;; 54: 140–145.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Jack RW, Tagg JR, Ray B. Bacteriocins of gram-positive bacteria. Microbiol Rev 1995;; 59: 171–200.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Delisle AL. Properties of mutacin b, an antibacterial substance produced by Streptococcus mutans strain BHT. Microbios 1986;; 46: 21–28.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Tagg JR, Russell C. Bacteriocin production by Streptococcus salivarius strain P. Can J Microbiol 1981;; 27: 918–923.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Delisle AL. Production of bacteriocins in a liquid medium by Streptococcus mutans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1975;; 8: 707–712.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Tompkins GR, Tagg JR. Bacteriocin-like inhibitory activity associated with beta-hemolytic strains of Streptococcus salivarius. J Dent Res 1987;; 66: 1321–1325.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Ike Y, Clewell DB, Segarra RA, Gilmore MS. Genetic analysis of the pAD1 hemolysin/bacteriocin determinant in Enterococcus faecalis: Tn917 insertional mutagenesis and cloning. J Bacteriol 1990;; 172: 155–163.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Caufield PW, Shah G, Hollingshead SK, Parrot M, Lavoie MC. Evidence that mutacin II production is not mediated by a 5.6-kb plasmid in Streptococcus mutans. Plasmid 1990;; 24: 110–118.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Caufield PW, Shah GR, Hollingshead SK. Use of transposon Tn916 to inactivate and isolate a mutacin-associated gene from Streptococcus mutans. Infect Immun 1990;; 58: 4126–4135.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Woodruff WA, Novák J, Caufield PW. Sequence analysis of mutA and mutM genes involved in the biosynthesis of the lantibiotic mutacin II in Streptococcus mutans. Gene 1998;; 206: 37–43.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Balakrishnan M. Purification and characterisation of mutacins produced by different clusters of inhibitory mutans streptococci. PhD thesis, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand, 1998.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/0022-1317-51-11-941
Loading
/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/0022-1317-51-11-941
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error