1887

Abstract

In this report, the open reading frame 21 () of nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), one of the unique genes of group I NPVs, was characterized. is predicted to encode a protein of 55.8 kDa and was found to contain imperfectly conserved leucine-rich repeats. 3′ Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (3′RACE) showed that the transcript of was first detected from 6 h post-infection and that it also encompassed the complete . 5′RACE revealed three transcription initiation sites, one of which mapped to the baculovirus early transcription motifs CGTGC and CAGT. Transient-expression and superinfection assays indicated that BM21 localized in the nucleus of infected BmN cells. To study the function of BM21, a -null virus was constructed using bacmid technology. Viral one-step growth curve analyses showed that the -null virus had similar budded virus production kinetics to those of the parental virus. Bioassay analyses showed that the median lethal concentration (LC) of the -null virus was similar to that of the control virus; however, the median survival time (ST) of the knockout virus was significantly longer than the control virus. These results indicate that BM21 is not essential for virus replication , but that deletion of the gene delays the killing of the infected larvae.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.83504-0
2008-04-01
2019-11-15
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/89/4/922.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.83504-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Afonso, C. L., Tulman, E. R., Lu, Z., Oma, E., Kutish, G. F. & Rock, D. L. ( 1999; ). The genome of Melanoplus sanguinipes entomopoxvirus. J Virol 73, 533–552.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bawden, A. L., Glassberg, K. J., Diggans, J., Shaw, R., Farmerie, W. & Moyer, R. W. ( 2000; ). Complete genomic sequence of the Amsacta moorei entomopoxvirus: analysis and comparison with other poxviruses. Virology 274, 120–139.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Beniya, H., Braunagel, S. C. & Summers, M. D. ( 1998; ). Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus: subcellular localization and protein trafficking of BV/ODV-E26 to intranuclear membranes and viral envelopes. Virology 240, 64–75.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bilder, D. & Perrimon, N. ( 2000; ). Localization of apical epithelial determinants by the basolateral PDZ protein Scribble. Nature 403, 676–680.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Blissard, G. W. & Wenz, J. R. ( 1992; ). Baculovirus gp64 envelope glycoprotein is sufficient to mediate pH-dependent membrane fusion. J Virol 66, 6829–6835.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bulach, D. M., Kumar, C. A., Zaia, A., Liang, B. & Tribe, D. E. ( 1999; ). Group II nucleopolyhedrovirus subgroups revealed by phylogenetic analysis of polyhedrin and DNA polymerase gene sequences. J Invertebr Pathol 73, 59–73.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Burks, J. K., Summers, M. D. & Braunagel, S. C. ( 2007; ). BV/ODV-E26: a palmitoylated, multifunctional structural protein of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus. Virology 361, 194–203.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Carson, D. D., Guarino, L. A. & Summers, M. D. ( 1988; ). Functional mapping of an AcNPV immediately early gene which augments expression of the IE-1 trans-activated 39K gene. Virology 162, 444–451.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Chen, X., Sun, X., Hu, Z., Li, M., O'Reilly, D. R., Zuidema, D. & Vlak, J. M. ( 2000; ). Genetic engineering of Helicoverpa armigera single-nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus as an improved pesticide. J Invertebr Pathol 76, 140–146.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Choudary, P. V., Kamita, S. G. & Maeda, S. ( 1995; ). Baculovirus Expression Protocols. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
  11. Dall, D., Luque, T. & O'Reilly, D. ( 2001; ). Insect–virus relationships: sifting by informatics. Bioessays 23, 184–193.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Detvisitsakun, C., Cain, E. L. & Passarelli, A. L. ( 2007; ). The Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus fibroblast growth factor accelerates host mortality. Virology 365, 70–78.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Evdokimov, A. G., Anderson, D. E., Routzahn, K. M. & Waugh, D. S. ( 2001; ). Unusual molecular architecture of the Yersinia pestis cytotoxin YopM: a leucine-rich repeat protein with the shortest repeating unit. J Mol Biol 312, 807–821.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Flipsen, J. T., Mans, R. M., Kleefsman, A. W., Knebel-Morsdorf, D. & Vlak, J. M. ( 1995; ). Deletion of the baculovirus ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyltransferase gene induces early degeneration of Malpighian tubules in infected insects. J Virol 69, 4529–4532.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Gomi, S., Majima, K. & Maeda, S. ( 1999; ). Sequence analysis of the genome of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus. J Gen Virol 80, 1323–1337.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Hake, S. B., Masternak, K., Kammerbauer, C., Janzen, C., Reith, W. & Steimle, V. ( 2000; ). CIITA leucine-rich repeats control nuclear localization, in vivo recruitment to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II enhanceosome, and MHC class II gene transactivation. Mol Cell Biol 20, 7716–7725.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Hefferon, K. L., Oomens, A. G. P., Monsma, S. A., Finnerty, C. M. & Blissard, G. W. ( 1999; ). Host cell receptor binding by baculovirus GP64 and kinetics of virion entry. Virology 258, 455–468.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Herniou, E. A., Luque, T., Chen, X., Vlak, J. M., Winstanley, D., Cory, J. S. & O'Reilly, D. R. ( 2001; ). Use of whole genome sequence data to infer baculovirus phylogeny. J Virol 75, 8117–8126.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Hou, S., Chen, X., Wang, H., Tao, M. & Hu, Z. ( 2002; ). Efficient method to generate homologous recombinant baculovirus genomes in E. coli. Biotechniques 32, 783–784, 786, 788.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Huang, J., Hao, B., Sun, X., Deng, F., Wang, H. & Hu, Z. ( 2007; ). Construction of the Bac-to-Bac system of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus. Virol Sin 22, 218–225.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Ikeda, M., Shikata, M., Shirata, N., Chaeychomsri, S. & Kobayashi, M. ( 2006; ). Gene organization and complete sequence of the Hyphantria cunea nucleopolyhedrovirus genome. J Gen Virol 87, 2549–2562.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Imai, N., Kurihara, M., Matsumoto, S. & Kang, W. K. ( 2004; ). Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus orf8 encodes a nucleic acid binding protein that colocalizes with IE1 during infection. Arch Virol 149, 1581–1594.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Inohara, N., Koseki, T., del Peso, L., Hu, Y., Yee, C., Chen, S., Carrio, R., Merino, J., Liu, D. & other authors ( 1999; ). Nod1, an Apaf-1-like activator of caspase-9 and nuclear factor-κB. J Biol Chem 274, 14560–14567.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Jans, D. A. & Hubner, S. ( 1996; ). Regulation of protein transport to the nucleus: central role of phosphorylation. Physiol Rev 76, 651–685.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Jones, D. A. & Jones, J. D. G. ( 1997; ). The role of leucine-rich repeat proteins in plant defences. Adv Bot Res 24, 89–167.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Kalbfleisch, J. D. & Ross, L. ( 1980; ). The Statistical Analysis of Failure Time Data. New York: Wiley.
  27. Kamita, S. G., Nagasaka, K., Chua, J. W., Shimada, T., Mita, K., Kobayashi, M., Maeda, S. & Hammock, B. D. ( 2005; ). A baculovirus-encoded protein tyrosine phosphatase gene induces enhanced locomotory activity in a lepidopteran host. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102, 2584–2589.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Katsuma, S., Shimada, T. & Kobayashi, M. ( 2004; ). Characterization of the baculovirus Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus gene homologous to the mammalian FGF gene family. Virus Genes 29, 211–217.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Katsuma, S., Horie, S., Daimon, T., Iwanaga, M. & Shimada, T. ( 2006; ). In vivo and in vitro analyses of a Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus mutant lacking functional vfgf. Virology 355, 62–70.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Kobe, B. & Kajava, A. V. ( 2001; ). The leucine-rich repeat as a protein recognition motif. Curr Opin Struct Biol 11, 725–732.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Kool, M., Ahrens, C. H., Goldbach, R. W., Rohrmann, G. F. & Vlak, J. M. ( 1994; ). Identification of genes involved in DNA replication of the Autographa californica baculovirus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91, 11212–11216.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Lapointe, R., Back, D. W., Ding, Q. & Carstens, E. B. ( 2000; ). Identification and molecular characterization of the Choristoneura fumiferana multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus genomic region encoding the regulatory genes pkip, p47, lef-12, and gta. Virology 271, 109–121.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Li, Y. & Miller, L. K. ( 1995; ). Expression and localization of a baculovirus protein phosphatase. J Gen Virol 76, 2941–2948.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Linhoff, M. W., Harton, J. A., Cressman, D. E., Martin, B. K. & Ting, J. P. ( 2001; ). Two distinct domains within CIITA mediate self-association: involvement of the GTP-binding and leucine-rich repeat domains. Mol Cell Biol 21, 3001–3011.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Lu, A. & Miller, L. K. ( 1995; ). The roles of eighteen baculovirus late expression factor genes in transcription and DNA replication. J Virol 69, 975–982.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Lung, O. Y., Cruz-Alvarez, M. & Blissard, G. W. ( 2003; ). Ac23, an envelope fusion protein homolog in the baculovirus Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus, is a viral pathogenicity factor. J Virol 77, 328–339.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Mainz, D., Quadt, I. & Knebel-Morsdorf, D. ( 2002; ). Nuclear IE2 structures are related to viral DNA replication sites during baculovirus infection. J Virol 76, 5198–5207.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Marino, M., Braun, L., Cossart, P. & Ghosh, P. ( 1999; ). Structure of the InlB leucine-rich repeats, a domain that triggers host cell invasion by the bacterial pathogen L. monocytogenes. Mol Cell 4, 1063–1072.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Mutai, H., Toyoshima, Y., Sun, W., Hattori, N., Tanaka, S. & Shiota, K. ( 2000; ). PAL31, a novel nuclear protein, expressed in the developing brain. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 274, 427–433.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. O'Reilly, D. R. & Miller, L. K. ( 1989; ). A baculovirus blocks insect molting by producing ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyl transferase. Science 245, 1110 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. O'Reilly, D. R. & Miller, L. K. ( 1991; ). Improvement of a baculovirus pesticide by deletion of the EGT gene. Biotechnology 9, 1086–1089.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. O'Reilly, D. R., Luckow, V. A. & Miller, L. K. ( 1992; ). Baculovirus Expression Vectors: a Laboratory Manual. New York: W. H. Freeman.
  43. Oomens, A. G. P. & Blissard, G. W. ( 1999; ). Requirement for GP64 to drive efficient budding of Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus. Virology 254, 297–314.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Prikhod'ko, E. A. & Miller, L. K. ( 1998; ). Role of baculovirus IE2 and its RING finger in cell cycle arrest. J Virol 72, 684–692.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Reisner, B. S. & Straley, S. C. ( 1992; ). Yersinia pestis YopM: thrombin binding and overexpression. Infect Immun 60, 5242–5252.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Saville, G. P., Patmanidi, A. L., Possee, R. D. & King, L. A. ( 2004; ). Deletion of the Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus chitinase KDEL motif and in vitro and in vivo analysis of the modified virus. J Gen Virol 85, 821–831.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Shippam-Brett, C. E., Willis, L. G. & Theilmann, D. A. ( 2001; ). Analysis of sequences involved in IE2 transactivation of a baculovirus immediate-early gene promoter and identification of a new regulatory motif. Virus Res 75, 13–28.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Snedecor, G. W. ( 1989; ). Statistical Methods, 8th edn. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press.
  49. Yoo, S. & Guarino, L. A. ( 1994a; ). The Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus ie2 gene encodes a transcriptional regulator. Virology 202, 746–753.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Yoo, S. & Guarino, L. A. ( 1994b; ). Functional dissection of the ie2 gene product of the baculovirus Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Virology 202, 164–172.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Zanotto, P. M., Kessing, B. D. & Maruniak, J. E. ( 1993; ). Phylogenetic interrelationships among baculoviruses: evolutionary rates and host associations. J Invertebr Pathol 62, 147–164.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.83504-0
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.83504-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error