1887

Abstract

CD4 T cells are involved in several immune response pathways used to control viral infections. In this study, a group of genetically defined goats was immunized with a synthetic peptide known to encompass an immunodominant helper T-cell epitope of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Fifty-five days after challenge with the molecularly cloned CAEV strain CO, the vaccinated animals had a higher proviral load than the controls. The measurement of gamma interferon and interleukin-4 gene expression showed that these cytokines were reliable markers of an ongoing immune response but their balance did not account for more or less efficient control of CAEV replication. In contrast, granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor appeared to be a key cytokine that might support virus replication in the early phase of infection. The observation of a potential T-cell-mediated enhancement of virus replication supports other recent findings showing that lentivirus-specific T cells can be detrimental to the host, suggesting caution in designing vaccine candidates.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.82800-0
2007-05-01
2019-11-13
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/88/5/1589.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.82800-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Cheevers, W. P., Beyer, J. C. & Knowles, D. P. ( 1997; ). Type 1 and type 2 cytokine gene expression by viral gp135 surface protein-activated T lymphocytes in caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus infection. J Virol 71, 6259–6263.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Eriksson, K., McInnes, E., Ryan, S., Tonks, P., McConnell, I. & Blacklaws, B. A. ( 1999; ). CD4+ T-cells are required for the establishment of maedi-visna virus infection in macrophages but not dendritic cells in vivo. Virology 258, 355–364.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Fluri, A., Nenci, C., Zahno, M. L., Vogt, H. R., Charan, S., Busato, A., Pancino, G., Peterhans, E., Obexer-Ruff, G. & Bertoni, G. ( 2006; ). The MHC-haplotype influences primary, but not memory, immune responses to an immunodominant peptide containing T- and B-cell epitopes of the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus Gag protein. Vaccine 24, 597–606.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Klenerman, P. & Hill, A. ( 2005; ). T cells and viral persistence: lessons from diverse infections. Nat Immunol 6, 873–879.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Lechner, F., Machado, J., Bertoni, G., Seow, H. F., Dobbelaere, D. A. & Peterhans, E. ( 1997; ). Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus dysregulates the expression of cytokines in macrophages. J Virol 71, 7488–7497.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Martin, M. P. & Carrington, M. ( 2005; ). Immunogenetics of viral infections. Curr Opin Immunol 17, 510–516.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Murphy, B. G., Hotzel, I., Jasmer, D. P., Davis, W. C. & Knowles, D. ( 2006; ). TNFα and GM-CSF-induced activation of the CAEV promoter is independent of AP-1. Virology 352, 188–199.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Raabe, M. L., Issel, C. J., Cook, S. J., Cook, R. F., Woodson, B. & Montelaro, R. C. ( 1998; ). Immunization with a recombinant envelope protein (rgp90) of EIAV produces a spectrum of vaccine efficacy ranging from lack of clinical disease to severe enhancement. Virology 245, 151–162.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Ravazzolo, A. P., Nenci, C., Vogt, H. R., Waldvogel, A., Obexer-Ruff, G., Peterhans, E. & Bertoni, G. ( 2006; ). Viral load, organ distribution, histopathological lesions, and cytokine mRNA expression in goats infected with a molecular clone of the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus. Virology 350, 116–127.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Richardson, J., Moraillon, A., Baud, S., Cuisinier, A. M., Sonigo, P. & Pancino, G. ( 1997; ). Enhancement of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection after DNA vaccination with the FIV envelope. J Virol 71, 9640–9649.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Richardson, J., Broche, S., Baud, S., Leste-Lasserre, T., Femenia, F., Levy, D., Moraillon, A., Pancino, G. & Sonigo, P. ( 2002; ). Lymphoid activation: a confounding factor in AIDS vaccine development?. J Gen Virol 83, 2515–2521.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Robinson, H. L., Montefiori, D. C., Villinger, F., Robinson, J. E., Sharma, S., Wyatt, L. S., Earl, P. L., McClure, H. M., Moss, B. & Amara, R. R. ( 2006; ). Studies on GM-CSF DNA as an adjuvant for neutralizing Ab elicited by a DNA/MVA immunodeficiency virus vaccine. Virology 352, 285–294.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Ruff, G. & Lazary, S. ( 1988; ). Evidence for linkage between the caprine leucocyte antigen (CLA) system and susceptibility to CAE virus-induced arthritis in goats. Immunogenetics 28, 303–309.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Ruff, G., Regli, J. G. & Lazary, S. ( 1993; ). Occurrence of caprine leucocyte class I and II antigens in Saanen goats affected by caprine arthritis (CAE). Eur J Immunogenet 20, 285–288.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Staprans, S. I., Barry, A. P., Silvestri, G., Safrit, J. T., Kozyr, N., Sumpter, B., Nguyen, H., McClure, H., Montefiori, D. & other authors ( 2004; ). Enhanced SIV replication and accelerated progression to AIDS in macaques primed to mount a CD4 T cell response to the SIV envelope protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101, 13026–13031.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Zhang, Z., Harkiss, G. D., Hopkins, J. & Woodall, C. J. ( 2002; ). Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor is elevated in alveolar macrophages from sheep naturally infected with maedi-visna virus and stimulates maedi-visna virus replication in macrophages in vitro. Clin Exp Immunol 129, 240–246.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.82800-0
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.82800-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error