1887

Abstract

To investigate the innate immune response within the brain to lyssavirus infection, key transcripts indicative of innate defences were measured in a mouse model system. Following infection with , transcript levels for type 1 interferons (IFN- and -), the inflammatory mediator interleukin 6 (IL-6) and the antiviral protein Mx1 increased in the brains of mice. Intracranial inoculation resulted in the early detection of virus replication and rapid expression within the brain of the innate immune response genes. Transcripts for type 1 IFNs declined as the disease progressed. Peripheral, extraneural inoculation delayed the host response until virus entered the brain, but then resulted in a large increase in the level of IFN-, IL-6 and Mx1 transcripts. Induction of this response was also observed following infection with the related European bat lyssaviruses, a group of zoonotic viruses capable of causing fatal, rabies-like disease in mammalian species.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.82024-0
2006-09-01
2019-11-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/87/9/2663.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.82024-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Badrane, H., Bahloul, C., Perrin, P. & Tordo, N. ( 2001; ). Evidence of two Lyssavirus phylogroups with distinct pathogenicity and immunogenicity. J Virol 75, 3268–3276.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Baloul, L. & Lafon, M. ( 2003; ). Apoptosis and rabies virus neuroinvasion. Biochimie 85, 777–788.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Brookes, S. M., Parsons, G., Johnson, N., McElhinney, L. M. & Fooks, A. R. ( 2005; ). Rabies human diploid cell vaccine elicits cross-neutralising and cross-protecting immune responses against European and Australian bat lyssaviruses. Vaccine 23, 4101–4109.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Brzózka, K., Finke, S. & Conzelmann, K.-K. ( 2005; ). Identification of the rabies virus alpha/beta interferon antagonist: phosphoprotein P interferes with phosphorylation of interferon regulatory factor 3. J Virol 79, 7673–7681.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bustin, S. A. & Nolan, T. ( 2004; ). Pitfalls of quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. J Biomol Tech 15, 155–166.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Coleman, P. G., Fevre, E. M. & Cleaveland, S. ( 2004; ). Estimating the public health impact of rabies. Emerg Infect Dis 10, 140–142.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Coulon, P., Ternaux, J.-P., Flamand, A. & Tuffereau, C. ( 1998; ). An avirulent mutant of rabies virus is unable to infect motoneurons in vivo and in vitro. J Virol 72, 273–278.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Dietzschold, B., Schnell, M. & Koprowski, H. ( 2005; ). Pathogenesis of rabies. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 292, 45–56.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Ferran, M. C. & Lucas-Lenard, J. M. ( 1997; ). The vesicular stomatitis virus matrix protein inhibits transcription from the human beta interferon promoter. J Virol 71, 371–377.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Fooks, A. R., Brookes, S. M., Johnson, N., McElhinney, L. M. & Hutson, A. M. ( 2003; ). European bat lyssaviruses: an emerging zoonosis. Epidemiol Infect 131, 1029–1039.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Frei, K., Malipiero, U. V., Leist, T. P., Zinkernagel, R. M., Schwab, M. E. & Fontana, A. ( 1989; ). On the cellular source and function of interleukin 6 produced in the central nervous system in viral diseases. Eur J Immunol 19, 689–694.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Haller, O., Frese, M. & Kochs, G. ( 1998; ). Mx proteins: mediators of innate resistance to RNA viruses. Rev Sci Tech 17, 220–230.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Haller, O., Kochs, G. & Weber, F. ( 2006; ). The interferon response circuit: induction and suppression by pathogenic viruses. Virology 344, 119–130.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Harmon, M. W. & Janis, B. ( 1975; ). Therapy of murine rabies after exposure: efficacy of polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid alone and in combination with three rabies vaccines. J Infect Dis 132, 241–249.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Hooper, D. C., Morimoto, K., Bette, M., Weihe, E., Koprowski, H. & Dietzschold, B. ( 1998; ). Collaboration of antibody and inflammation in clearance of rabies virus from the central nervous system. J Virol 72, 3711–3719.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Jackson, A. C. ( 2003; ). Rabies virus infection: an update. J Neurovirol 9, 253–258.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Johnson, N., Selden, D., Parsons, G., Healy, D., Brookes, S. M., McElhinney, L. M., Hutson, A. M. & Fooks, A. R. ( 2003; ). Isolation of a European bat lyssavirus type 2 from a Daubenton's bat in the United Kingdom. Vet Rec 152, 383–387.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Leroy, M., Pire, G., Baise, E. & Desmecht, D. ( 2006; ). Expression of the interferon-alpha/beta-inducible bovine Mx1 dynamin interferes with replication of rabies virus. Neurobiol Dis 21, 515–521.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Lobigs, M., Müllbacher, A., Wang, Y., Pavy, M. & Lee, E. ( 2003; ). Role of type I and type II interferon responses in recovery from infection with an encephalitic flavivirus. J Gen Virol 84, 567–572.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Marcovistz, R., Hovanessian, A. G. & Tsiang, H. ( 1984; ). Distribution of rabies virus, interferon and interferon-mediated enzymes in the brains of virus-infected rats. J Gen Virol 65, 995–997.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Marcovistz, R., Leal, E. C., Matos, D. C. & Tsiang, H. ( 1994; ). Interferon production and immune response induction in apathogenic rabies virus-infected mice. Acta Virol 38, 193–197.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Marquette, C., Van Dam, A. M., Ceccaldi, P. E., Weber, P., Haour, F. & Tsiang, H. ( 1996; ). Induction of immunoreactive interleukin 1β and tumour necrosis factor-α in the brains of rabies virus infected rats. J Neuroimmunol 68, 45–51.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. McKimmie, C. S., Johnson, N., Fooks, A. R. & Fazakerley, J. K. ( 2005; ). Viruses selectively upregulate Toll-like receptors in the central nervous system. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 336, 925–933.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Meier, A., Kunz, G., Haller, O. & Arnheiter, H. ( 1990; ). Activity of rat Mx proteins against a rhabdovirus. J Virol 64, 6263–6269.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Morimoto, K., Patel, M., Corisdeo, S., Hooper, D. C., Fu, Z. F., Rupprecht, C. E., Koprowski, H. & Dietzschold, B. ( 1996; ). Characterization of a unique variant of bat rabies virus responsible for newly emerging human cases in North America. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93, 5653–5658.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Préhaud, C., Mégret, F., Lafage, M. & Lafon, M. ( 2005; ). Virus infection switches TLR-3-positive human neurons to become strong producers of beta interferon. J Virol 79, 12893–12904.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Prosniak, M., Hooper, D. C., Dietzschold, B. & Koprowski, H. ( 2001; ). Effect of rabies virus infection on gene expression in mouse brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98, 2758–2763.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Saha, A. & Rangarajan, P. ( 2003; ). Common host genes are activated in mouse brain by Japanese encephalitis and rabies viruses. J Gen Virol 84, 1729–1735.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Schneider-Schaulies, S., Schneider-Schaulies, J., Schuster, A., Bayer, M., Pavlovic, J. & ter Meulen, V. ( 1994; ). Cell type-specific MxA-mediated inhibition of measles virus transcription in human brain cells. J Virol 68, 6910–6917.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Shankar, V., Dietzschold, B. & Koprowski, H. ( 1991; ). Direct entry of rabies virus into the central nervous system without prior local replication. J Virol 65, 2736–2738.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Stewart, W. E., II & Sulkin, S. E. ( 1966; ). Interferon production in hamsters experimentally infected with rabies virus. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 123, 650–654.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Tsiang, H., de la Porte, S., Ambroise, D. J., Derer, M. & Koenig, J. ( 1986; ). Infection of cultured rat myotubes and neurons from the spinal cord by rabies virus. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 45, 28–42.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Wang, Z. W., Sarmento, L., Wang, Y., Li, X., Dhingra, V., Tseggai, T., Jiang, B. & Fu, Z. F. ( 2005; ). Attenuated rabies virus activates, while pathogenic rabies virus evades, the host innate immune responses in the central nervous system. J Virol 79, 12554–12565.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.82024-0
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.82024-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplements

vol. , part 9, pp. 2663 – 2667

Transcript-specific primer pair sequences used to amplify viral nucleoprotein and murine mRNA transcripts

Lyssavirus isolates used to induce CNS alpha interferon transcription

[ Single PDF file] (132 KB)



PDF

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error