1887

Abstract

In 1978, a rigorous programme was implemented to stop the spread of, and subsequently eradicate, sheep scrapie in Iceland. Affected flocks were culled, premises were disinfected and, after 2–3 years, restocked with lambs from scrapie-free areas. Between 1978 and 2004, scrapie recurred on 33 farms. Nine of these recurrences occurred 14–21 years after culling, apparently as the result of environmental contamination, but outside entry could not always be absolutely excluded. Of special interest was one farm with a small, completely self-contained flock where scrapie recurred 18 years after culling, 2 years after some lambs had been housed in an old sheep-house that had never been disinfected. Epidemiological investigation established with near certitude that the disease had not been introduced from the outside and it is concluded that the agent may have persisted in the old sheep-house for at least 16 years.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.82011-0
2006-12-01
2019-09-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/87/12/3737.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.82011-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Asante, E. A., Linehan, J. M., Desbruslais, M. & 8 other authors ( 2002; ). BSE prions propagate as either variant CJD-like or sporadic CJD-like prion strains in transgenic mice expressing human prion protein. EMBO J 21, 6358–6366.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bellworthy, S. J., Dexter, G., Stack, M. & 7 other authors ( 2005; ). Natural transmission of BSE between sheep within an experimental flock. Vet Rec 157, 206.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Brown, P. & Gajdusek, D. C. ( 1991; ). Survival of scrapie virus after 3 years' interment. Lancet 337, 269–270.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Brown, P., Meyer, R., Cardone, F. & Pocchiari, M. ( 2003; ). Ultra-high-pressure inactivation of prion infectivity in processed meat: a practical method to prevent human infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100, 6093–6097.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Brown, P., Rau, E. H., Lemieux, P., Johnson, B. K., Bacote, A. & Gajdusek, D. C. ( 2004; ). Infectivity studies of both ash and air emissions from simulated incineration of scrapie-contaminated tissues. Environ Sci Technol 38, 6155–6160.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Cardone, F., Brown, P., Meyer, R. & Pocchiari, M. ( 2006; ). Inactivation of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy agents by ultra high pressure–temperature treatment. Biochim Biophys Acta 1764, 558–562.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Eloit, M., Adjou, K., Coulpier, M. & 17 other authors ( 2005; ). BSE agent signatures in a goat. Vet Rec 156, 523–524.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Johnson, C. J., Phillips, K. E., Schramm, P. T., McKenzie, D., Aiken, J. M. & Pedersen, J. A. ( 2006; ). Prions adhere to soil minerals and remain infectious. PLoS Pathog 2, e32.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Miller, M. W., Williams, E. S., Hobbs, N. T. & Wolfe, L. L. ( 2004; ). Environmental sources of prion transmission in mule deer. Emerg Infect Dis 10, 1003–1006.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. O'Rourke, K. I., Baszler, T. V., Miller, J. M., Spraker, T. R., Sadler-Riggleman, I. & Knowles, D. P. ( 1998; ). Monoclonal antibody F89/160.1.5 defines a conserved epitope on the ruminant prion protein. J Clin Microbiol 36, 1750–1755.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Pálsson, P. A. ( 1979; ). Rida (scrapie) in Iceland and its epidemiology. In Slow Transmissible Diseases of the Nervous System, vol. I, pp. 357–366. Edited by S. B. Prusiner & W. J. Hadlow. New York: Academic Press.
  12. Schreuder, B. E C., Geertsma, R. E., van Keulen, L. J. M., van Asten, J. A. A. M., Enthoven, P., Oberthür, R. C., de Koeijer, A. A. & Osterhaus, A. D. M. E. ( 1998; ). Studies on the efficacy of hyperbaric rendering procedures in inactivating bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and scrapie agents. Vet Rec 142, 474–480.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Sigurdarson, S. ( 2000; ). Scrapie eller rida i Island. Nor Vet Tidsskr 112, 408–413 (in Norwegian).
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Taylor, D. M. ( 2000; ). Inactivation of transmissible degenerative encephalopathy agents: a review. Vet J 159, 10–17.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Taylor, D. M., Fraser, H., McConnell, I., Brown, D. A., Brown, K. L., Lamza, K. A. & Smith, G. R. A. ( 1994; ). Decontamination studies with the agents of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie. Arch Virol 139, 313–326.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Thorgeirsdottir, S., Sigurdarson, S., Thorisson, H. M., Georgsson, G. & Palsdottir, A. ( 1999; ). PrP gene polymorphism and natural scrapie in Icelandic sheep. J Gen Virol 80, 2527–2534.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Thorgeirsdottir, S., Georgsson, G., Reynisson, E., Sigurdarson, S. & Palsdottir, A. ( 2002; ). Search for healthy carriers of scrapie: an assessment of subclinical infection of sheep in an Icelandic scrapie flock by three diagnostic methods and correlation with PrP genotypes. Arch Virol 147, 709–722.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.82011-0
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.82011-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error