1887

Abstract

The primary target of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is epithelial cells in the respiratory and intestinal tract. The cellular receptor for SARS-CoV, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), has been shown to be localized on the apical plasma membrane of polarized respiratory epithelial cells and to mediate infection from the apical side of these cells. Here, these results were confirmed and extended by including a colon carcinoma cell line (Caco-2), a lung carcinoma cell line (Calu-3) and Vero E6 cells in our analysis. All three cell types expressed human ACE2 on the apical membrane domain and were infected via this route, as determined with vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotypes containing the S protein of SARS-CoV. In a histological analysis of the respiratory tract, ACE2 was detected in the trachea, main bronchus and alveoli, and occasionally also in the small bronchi. These data will help us to understand the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV infection.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.81749-0
2006-06-01
2019-10-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/87/6/1691.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.81749-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Compans, R. W. & Herrler, G. ( 2005; ). Virus infection of epithelial cells. In Mucosal Immunology, 3rd edn, pp. 769–782. Edited by J. Mestecky, J. Bienenstock, M. E. Lamm, L. Mayer, J. R. McGhee & W. Strober. San Diego: Academic Press.
  2. Delmas, B., Gelfi, J., L'Haridon, R., Vogel, L. K., Sjöström, H., Noren, O. & Laude, H. ( 1992; ). Aminopeptidase N is a major receptor for the enteropathogenic coronavirus TGEV. Nature 357, 417–420.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Hamming, I., Timens, W., Bulthuis, M. L. C., Lely, A. T., Navis, G. J. & van Goor, H. ( 2004; ). Tissue distribution of ACE2 protein, the functional receptor for SARS coronavirus. A first step in understanding SARS pathogenesis. J Pathol 203, 631–637.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Hanika, A., Larisch, B., Steinmann, E., Schwegmann-Weßels, C., Herrler, G. & Zimmer, G. ( 2005; ). Use of influenza C virus glycoprotein HEF for generation of vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotypes. J Gen Virol 86, 1455–1465.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Hofmann, H., Pyrc, K., van der Hoek, L., Geier, M., Berkhout, B. & Pöhlmann, S. ( 2005; ). Human coronavirus NL63 employs the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus receptor for cellular entry. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102, 7988–7993.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Jia, H. P., Look, D. C., Shi, L. & 7 other authors ( 2005; ). ACE2 receptor expression and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection depend on differentiation of human airway epithelia. J Virol 79, 14614–14621.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Krempl, C., Schultze, B., Laude, H. & Herrler, G. ( 1997; ). Point mutations in the S protein connect the sialic acid binding activity with the enteropathogenicity of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus. J Virol 71, 3285–3287.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Leung, W. K., To, K.-F., Chan, P. K. S., Chan, H. L. Y., Wu, A. K. L., Lee, N., Yuen, K. Y. & Sung, J. J. Y. ( 2003; ). Enteric involvement of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus infection. Gastroenterology 125, 1011–1017.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Li, W., Moore, M. J., Vasilieva, N. & 9 other authors ( 2003; ). Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is a functional receptor for the SARS coronavirus. Nature 426, 450–454.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Nie, Y., Wang, P., Shi, X. & 13 other authors ( 2004; ). Highly infectious SARS-CoV pseudotyped virus reveals the cell tropism and its correlation with receptor expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 321, 994–1000.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Schultze, B., Krempl, C., Ballesteros, M. L., Shaw, L., Schauer, R., Enjuanes, L. & Herrler, G. ( 1996; ). Transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus, but not the related porcine respiratory coronavirus, has a sialic acid (N-glycolylneuraminic acid) binding activity. J Virol 70, 5634–5637.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Schwegmann-Wessels, C., Zimmer, G., Laude, H., Enjuanes, L. & Herrler, G. ( 2002; ). Binding of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus to cell surface sialoglycoproteins. J Virol 76, 6037–6043.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Schwegmann-Wessels, C., Zimmer, G., Schröder, B., Breves, G. & Herrler, G. ( 2003; ). Binding of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus to brush border membrane sialoglycoproteins. J Virol 77, 11846–11848.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Schwegmann-Wessels, C., Al-Falah, M., Escors, D., Wang, Z., Zimmer, G., Deng, H., Enjuanes, L., Naim, H. Y. & Herrler, G. ( 2004; ). A novel sorting signal for intracellular localization is present in the S protein of a porcine coronavirus but absent from severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus. J Biol Chem 279, 43661–43666.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Sims, A. C., Baric, R. S., Yount, B., Burkett, S. E., Collins, P. L. & Pickles, R. J. ( 2005; ). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection of human ciliated airway epithelia: role of ciliated cells in viral spread in the conducting airways of the lungs. J Virol 79, 15511–15524.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Tseng, C.-T. K., Tseng, J., Perrone, L., Worthy, M., Popov, V. & Peters, C. J. ( 2005; ). Apical entry and release of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus in polarized Calu-3 lung epithelial cells. J Virol 79, 9470–9479.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Wang, P., Chen, J., Zheng, A. & 15 other authors ( 2004; ). Expression cloning of functional receptor used by SARS coronavirus. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 315, 439–444.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.81749-0
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.81749-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error