1887

Abstract

Several hepatitis B virus (HBV) subtypes (subgenotypes), HBV/Aa (A1 : Asia/Africa), Ae (A2 : Europe), Bj (B1 : Japan) and Ba (B2 : Asia), have been reported with respect to clinical differences between patients infected with these subtypes (subgenotypes). HBV genotype distribution among patients with chronic liver diseases was investigated in the Philippines, where such studies have not been carried out previously. One hundred sera were obtained from such patients, consisting of 32 chronic hepatitis (CH), 37 cirrhosis and 31 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Nine complete genomes and 100 core promoter/precore genes of HBV were sequenced directly. Phylogenetic analyses revealed 51 HBV/A (Aa/A1), 22 HBV/B and 27 HBV/C strains. Interestingly, most HBV/C strains in the Philippines formed a specific cluster distinct from previous HBV/C strains (C1–4), indicating a novel subtype (subgenotype), HBV/C5. Moreover, most HBV/B strains fell within the specific cluster of the HBV/B subtype (subgenotype) B5, with viral characteristics of HBV/Ba (B2) carrying a recombination with HBV/C over the precore and core genes. Of the three genotypes, HBV/B and HBV/C were significantly more prevalent than HBV/A in cirrhosis and HCC patients (<0.02). The prevalence of the core promoter mutations T1762/A1764 was higher in HCC patients with HBV/B and HBV/C. Multivariate analysis indicated that age [odds ratio (OR) 3.43; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.04–11.36; =0.044] and the core promoter mutation (OR 14.08; 95 % CI 3.62–4.74; <0.001) were significant factors for HCC development. In conclusion, novel HBV subtypes (subgenotypes) C5 and B5 are prevalent in the Philippines, as well as HBV/Aa (A1).

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.81714-0
2006-07-01
2019-10-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/87/7/1873.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.81714-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Akuta, N., Suzuki, F., Kobayashi, M. & 9 other authors ( 2003; ). The influence of hepatitis B virus genotype on the development of lamivudine resistance during long-term treatment. J Hepatol 38, 315–321.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Arauz-Ruiz, P., Norder, H., Robertson, B. H. & Magnius, L. O. ( 2002; ). Genotype H: a new Amerindian genotype of hepatitis B virus revealed in Central America. J Gen Virol 83, 2059–2073.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bowyer, S. M., van Staden, L., Kew, M. C. & Sim, J. G. ( 1997; ). A unique segment of the hepatitis B virus group A genotype identified in isolates from South Africa. J Gen Virol 78, 1719–1729.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Chan, H. L., Hui, A. Y., Wong, M. L., Tse, A. M., Hung, L. C., Wong, V. W. & Sung, J. J. ( 2004; ). Genotype C hepatitis B virus infection is associated with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Gut 53, 1494–1498.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Chu, C. J., Keeffe, E. B., Han, S. H. & 8 other authors ( 2003; ). Hepatitis B virus genotypes in the United States: results of a nationwide study. Gastroenterology 125, 444–451.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Gojobori, T., Ishii, K. & Nei, M. ( 1982; ). Estimation of average number of nucleotide substitutions when the rate of substitution varies with nucleotide. J Mol Evol 18, 414–423.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Hannoun, C., Norder, H. & Lindh, M. ( 2000; ). An aberrant genotype revealed in recombinant hepatitis B virus strains from Vietnam. J Gen Virol 81, 2267–2272.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Ito, K., Tanaka, Y., Orito, E. & 12 other authors ( 2006; ). T1653 mutation in the box alpha increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus genotype C infection. Clin Infect Dis 42, 1–7.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Kew, M. C., Kramvis, A., Yu, M. C., Arakawa, K. & Hodkinson, J. ( 2005; ). Increased hepatocarcinogenic potential of hepatitis B virus genotype A in Bantu-speaking sub-Saharan Africans. J Med Virol 75, 513–521.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Kimbi, G. C., Kramvis, A. & Kew, M. C. ( 2004; ). Distinctive sequence characteristics of subgenotype A1 isolates of hepatitis B virus from South Africa. J Gen Virol 85, 1211–1220.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Kramvis, A., Weitzmann, L., Owiredu, W. K. & Kew, M. C. ( 2002; ). Analysis of the complete genome of subgroup A′ hepatitis B virus isolates from South Africa. J Gen Virol 83, 835–839.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Kramvis, A., Kew, M. & Francois, G. ( 2005; ). Hepatitis B virus genotypes. Vaccine 23, 2409–2423.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Norder, H., Courouce, A. M. & Magnius, L. O. ( 1994; ). Complete genomes, phylogenetic relatedness, and structural proteins of six strains of the hepatitis B virus, four of which represent two new genotypes. Virology 198, 489–503.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Norder, H., Courouce, A. M., Coursaget, P., Echevarria, J. M., Lee, S. D., Mushahwar, I. K., Robertson, B. H., Locarnini, S. & Magnius, L. O. ( 2004; ). Genetic diversity of hepatitis B virus strains derived worldwide: genotypes, subgenotypes, and HBsAg subtypes. Intervirology 47, 289–309.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Okamoto, H., Tsuda, F., Sakugawa, H., Sastrosoewignjo, R. I., Imai, M., Miyakawa, Y. & Mayumi, M. ( 1988; ). Typing hepatitis B virus by homology in nucleotide sequence: comparison of surface antigen subtypes. J Gen Virol 69, 2575–2583.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Orito, E., Ichida, T., Sakugawa, H. & 11 other authors ( 2001; ). Geographic distribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype in patients with chronic HBV infection in Japan. Hepatology 34, 590–594.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Robertson, B., Myers, G., Howard, C. & 14 other authors ( 1998; ). Classification, nomenclature, and database development for hepatitis C virus (HCV) and related viruses: proposals for standardization. International Committee on Virus Taxonomy. Arch Virol 143, 2493–2503.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Saitou, N. & Nei, M. ( 1987; ). The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4, 406–425.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Stuyver, L., De Gendt, S., Van Geyt, C., Zoulim, F., Fried, M., Schinazi, R. F. & Rossau, R. ( 2000; ). A new genotype of hepatitis B virus: complete genome and phylogenetic relatedness. J Gen Virol 81, 67–74.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Sugauchi, F., Mizokami, M., Orito, E. & 7 other authors ( 2001; ). A novel variant genotype C of hepatitis B virus identified in isolates from Australian Aborigines: complete genome sequence and phylogenetic relatedness. J Gen Virol 82, 883–892.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Sugauchi, F., Orito, E., Ichida, T. & 9 other authors ( 2002; ). Hepatitis B virus of genotype B with or without recombination with genotype C over the precore region plus the core gene. J Virol 76, 5985–5992.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Sugauchi, F., Orito, E., Ichida, T. & 10 other authors ( 2003; ). Epidemiologic and virologic characteristics of hepatitis B virus genotype B having the recombination with genotype C. Gastroenterology 124, 925–932.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Sugauchi, F., Kumada, H., Acharya, S. A. & 10 other authors ( 2004; ). Epidemiological and sequence differences between two subtypes (Ae and Aa) of hepatitis B virus genotype A. J Gen Virol 85, 811–820.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Takahashi, K., Ohta, Y., Kanai, K., Akahane, Y., Iwasa, Y., Hino, K., Ohno, N., Yoshizawa, H. & Mishiro, S. ( 1999; ). Clinical implications of mutations C-to-T1653 and T-to-C/A/G1753 of hepatitis B virus genotype C genome in chronic liver disease. Arch Virol 144, 1299–1308.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Tanaka, Y., Hasegawa, I., Kato, T. & 11 other authors ( 2004; ). A case-control study for differences among hepatitis B virus infections of genotypes A (subtypes Aa and Ae) and D. Hepatology 40, 747–755.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Tanaka, Y., Orito, E., Yuen, M.-F. & 8 other authors ( 2005; ). Two subtypes (subgenotypes) of hepatitis B virus genotype C: a novel subtyping assay based on restriction fragment length polymorphism. Hepatol Res 33, 216–224.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Vieth, S., Manegold, C., Drosten, C., Nippraschk, T. & Gunther, S. ( 2002; ). Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis B virus genotype G isolated in Germany. Virus Genes 24, 153–156.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.81714-0
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.81714-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplements

vol. , part 7, pp. 1873 - 1882

Neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree constructed from sequences of the X gene, precore and core gene spanning 398 bp. [PDF](89 KB)



PDF

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error