1887

Abstract

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is implicated causally in the development of several human malignancies, including primary effusion lymphoma (PEL). PEL cells serve as tools for KSHV research, as most of them are latently infected and allow lytic virus replication in response to various stimuli. 12--Tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) is the most potent inducer of lytic KSHV reactivation; nevertheless, the exact mechanism by which it induces reactivation remains unknown. It has previously been reported by our group that the protein kinase C (PKC) isoform plays a crucial role in TPA-mediated KSHV reactivation. Here, the activation pathway was dissected and it was demonstrated that TPA induces KSHV reactivation via stimulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Western blot analysis revealed a rapid phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Cells treated with MAPK/ERK inhibitors before TPA addition demonstrated repression of ERK1/2 phosphorylation, which was associated with a block of KSHV lytic-gene expression. This inhibition prevented c-Fos accumulation, yet increased c-Jun phosphorylation. Similar results were obtained in response to rottlerin, a selective PKC inhibitor. Notably, the PKC inhibitor GF 109203X reduced ERK1/2 phosphorylation, c-Fos accumulation, c-Jun phosphorylation and KSHV reactivation. It is proposed that TPA induces KSHV reactivation through at least two arms. The first involves PKC, ERK phosphorylation and c-Fos accumulation, whilst the second requires another PKC isoform that induces the phosphorylation of c-Jun. c-Fos and c-Jun jointly form an active AP-1 complex, which functions to activate the lytic cascade of KSHV.

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2006-04-01
2019-11-17
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