1887

Abstract

Two (2·3 %) of 87 wild-caught boars in Japan had detectable hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA. The two boar HEV isolates (wbJTS1 and wbJYG1) obtained in the present study and a previously reported isolate (wbJSG1) whose partial sequence had been determined were sequenced over the entire genome. The wbJSG1, wbJTS1 and wbJYG1 isolates comprised 7225 or 7226 nt, excluding the poly(A) tail, and segregated into genotype 3. They differed by 8·5–11·2 % from each other and by 8·6–18·4 % from 17 reported genotype 3 HEV isolates, including one boar isolate, in the full-length sequence. When compared with 191 reported genotype 3 HEV isolates whose partial sequences were known, these three boar isolates were closer to Japanese isolates than to isolates of non-Japanese origin (89·2±2·6 vs 85·9±2·2 %; <0·0001). A proportion of wild boars in Japan are infected with markedly heterogeneous HEV strains that are indigenous to Japan and may serve as reservoirs of HEV.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.81394-0
2005-12-01
2019-11-13
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/86/12/3321.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.81394-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Chandler, J. D., Riddell, M. A., Li, F., Love, R. J. & Anderson, D. A. ( 1999; ). Serological evidence for swine hepatitis E virus infection in Australian pig herds. Vet Microbiol 68, 95–105.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Erker, J. C., Desai, S. M., Schlauder, G. G., Dawson, G. J. & Mushahwar, I. K. ( 1999; ). A hepatitis E virus variant from the United States: molecular characterization and transmission in cynomolgus macaques. J Gen Virol 80, 681–690.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Felsenstein, J. ( 1985; ). Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39, 783–791.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Garkavenko, O., Obriadina, A., Meng, J., Anderson, D. A., Benard, H. J., Schroeder, B. A., Khudyakov, Y. E., Fields, H. A. & Croxson, M. C. ( 2001; ). Detection and characterization of swine hepatitis E virus in New Zealand. J Med Virol 65, 525–529.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Harrison, T. J. ( 1999; ). Hepatitis E virus – an update. Liver 19, 171–176.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Hsieh, S.-Y., Meng, X.-J., Wu, Y.-H., Liu, S.-T., Tam, A. W., Lin, D.-Y. & Liaw, Y.-F. ( 1999; ). Identity of a novel swine hepatitis E virus in Taiwan forming a monophyletic group with Taiwan isolates of human hepatitis E virus. J Clin Microbiol 37, 3828–3834.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Huang, F. F., Haqshenas, G., Guenette, D. K., Halbur, P. G., Schommer, S. K., Pierson, F. W., Toth, T. E. & Meng, X. J. ( 2002; ). Detection by reverse transcription-PCR and genetic characterization of field isolates of swine hepatitis E virus from pigs in different geographic regions of the United States. J Clin Microbiol 40, 1326–1332.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Huang, F. F., Sun, Z. F., Emerson, S. U., Purcell, R. H., Shivaprasad, H. L., Pierson, F. W., Toth, T. E. & Meng, X. J. ( 2004; ). Determination and analysis of the complete genomic sequence of avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) and attempts to infect rhesus monkeys with avian HEV. J Gen Virol 85, 1609–1618.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Kwok, S. & Higuchi, R. ( 1989; ). Avoiding false positives with PCR. Nature 339, 237–238.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Matsuda, H., Okada, K., Takahashi, K. & Mishiro, S. ( 2003; ). Severe hepatitis E virus infection after ingestion of uncooked liver from a wild boar. J Infect Dis 188, 944.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Meng, X.-J. ( 2000; ). Novel strains of hepatitis E virus identified from humans and other animal species: is hepatitis E a zoonosis? J Hepatol 33, 842–845.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Meng, X.-J. ( 2003; ). Swine hepatitis E virus: cross-species infection and risk in xenotransplantation. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 278, 185–216.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Meng, X.-J., Purcell, R. H., Halbur, P. G., Lehman, J. R., Webb, D. M., Tsareva, T. S., Haynes, J. S., Thacker, B. J. & Emerson, S. U. ( 1997; ). A novel virus in swine is closely related to the human hepatitis E virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94, 9860–9865.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Meng, X.-J., Halbur, P. G., Shapiro, M. S., Govindarajan, S., Bruna, J. D., Mushahwar, I. K., Purcell, R. H. & Emerson, S. U. ( 1998; ). Genetic and experimental evidence for cross-species infection by swine hepatitis E virus. J Virol 72, 9714–9721.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Mizuo, H., Suzuki, K., Takikawa, Y. & 8 other authors ( 2002; ). Polyphyletic strains of hepatitis E virus are responsible for sporadic cases of acute hepatitis in Japan. J Clin Microbiol 40, 3209–3218.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Nishizawa, T., Takahashi, M., Mizuo, H., Miyajima, H., Gotanda, Y. & Okamoto, H. ( 2003; ). Characterization of Japanese swine and human hepatitis E virus isolates of genotype IV with 99 % identity over the entire genome. J Gen Virol 84, 1245–1251.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Okamoto, H., Nishizawa, T., Tawara, A., Takahashi, M., Kishimoto, J., Sai, T. & Sugai, Y. ( 2000; ). TT virus mRNAs detected in the bone marrow cells from an infected individual. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 279, 700–707.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Okamoto, H., Takahashi, M., Nishizawa, T., Fukai, K., Muramatsu, U. & Yoshikawa, A. ( 2001; ). Analysis of the complete genome of indigenous swine hepatitis E virus isolated in Japan. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 289, 929–936.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Pina, S., Buti, M., Cotrina, M., Piella, J. & Girones, R. ( 2000; ). HEV identified in serum from humans with acute hepatitis and in sewage of animal origin in Spain. J Hepatol 33, 826–833.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Purcell, R. H. & Emerson, S. U. ( 2001; ). Hepatitis E virus. In Fields Virology, 4th edn, pp. 3051–3061. Edited by D. M. Knipe, P. M. Howley, D. E. Griffin, R. A. Lamb, M. A. Martin, B. Roizman & S. E. Straus. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  21. Saitou, N. & Nei, M. ( 1987; ). The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4, 406–425.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Schlauder, G. G. & Mushahwar, I. K. ( 2001; ). Genetic heterogeneity of hepatitis E virus. J Med Virol 65, 282–292.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Smith, J. L. ( 2001; ). A review of hepatitis E virus. J Food Prot 64, 572–586.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Sonoda, H., Abe, M., Sugimoto, T. & 7 other authors ( 2004; ). Prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in wild boars and deer and genetic identification of a genotype 3 HEV from a boar in Japan. J Clin Microbiol 42, 5371–5374.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Takahashi, M., Nishizawa, T., Miyajima, H., Gotanda, Y., Iita, T., Tsuda, F. & Okamoto, H. ( 2003; ). Swine hepatitis E virus strains in Japan form four phylogenetic clusters comparable with those of Japanese isolates of human hepatitis E virus. J Gen Virol 84, 851–862.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Takahashi, K., Kitajima, N., Abe, N. & Mishiro, S. ( 2004; ). Complete or near-complete nucleotide sequences of hepatitis E virus genome recovered from a wild boar, a deer, and four patients who ate the deer. Virology 330, 501–505.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Takahashi, M., Nishizawa, T., Tanaka, T., Tsatsralt-Od, B., Inoue, J. & Okamoto, H. ( 2005; ). Correlation between positivity for immunoglobulin A antibodies and viraemia of swine hepatitis E virus observed among farm pigs in Japan. J Gen Virol 86, 1807–1813.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Tam, A. W., Smith, M. M., Guerra, M. E., Huang, C.-C., Bradley, D. W., Fry, K. E. & Reyes, G. R. ( 1991; ). Hepatitis E virus (HEV): molecular cloning and sequencing of the full-length viral genome. Virology 185, 120–131.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Tamada, Y., Yano, K., Yatsuhashi, H., Inoue, O., Mawatari, F. & Ishibashi, H. ( 2004; ). Consumption of wild boar linked to cases of hepatitis E. J Hepatol 40, 869–873.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Tei, S., Kitajima, N., Takahashi, K. & Mishiro, S. ( 2003; ). Zoonotic transmission of hepatitis E virus from deer to human beings. Lancet 362, 371–373.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Tei, S., Kitajima, N., Ohara, S., Inoue, Y., Miki, M., Yamatani, T., Yamabe, H., Mishiro, S. & Kinoshita, Y. ( 2004; ). Consumption of uncooked deer meat as a risk factor for hepatitis E virus infection: an age- and sex-matched case-control study. J Med Virol 74, 67–70.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Wang, Y., Zhang, H., Ling, R., Li, H. & Harrison, T. J. ( 2000; ). The complete sequence of hepatitis E virus genotype 4 reveals an alternative strategy for translation of open reading frames 2 and 3. J Gen Virol 81, 1675–1686.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Wang, Y.-C., Zhang, H., Xia, N. & 11 other authors ( 2002; ). Prevalence, isolation, and partial sequence analysis of hepatitis E virus from domestic animals in China. J Med Virol 67, 516–521.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Wu, J.-C., Chen, C.-M., Chiang, T.-Y., Tsai, W.-H., Jeng, W.-J., Sheen, I.-J., Lin, C.-C. & Meng, X.-J. ( 2002; ). Spread of hepatitis E virus among different-aged pigs: two-year survey in Taiwan. J Med Virol 66, 488–492.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Yazaki, Y., Mizuo, H., Takahashi, M., Nishizawa, T., Sasaki, N., Gotanda, Y. & Okamoto, H. ( 2003; ). Sporadic acute or fulminant hepatitis E in Hokkaido, Japan, may be food-borne, as suggested by the presence of hepatitis E virus in pig liver as food. J Gen Virol 84, 2351–2357.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.81394-0
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.81394-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error