1887

Abstract

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) may have been transmitted to British sheep via contaminated feed in the 1980s. Strain-typing techniques based on immunohistochemical (IHC) detection of abnormal protein (PrP) and the molecular analysis of proteinase-resistant protein (PrP) by Western blotting (WB) can discriminate between natural or experimental scrapie and experimental BSE in sheep. Between 1 January 1998 and 31 October 2001, 1247 sheep, clinically suspected of scrapie, were found to be positive by statutory tests in Great Britain. Archived brain tissue from these cases was retested by using these discriminatory methods. Twelve brain samples showed PrP WB patterns that were unlike those found in natural or experimental scrapie. Prospective screening of fresh tissue from a further 1121 scrapie cases was also carried out between 1 November 2001 and 31 May 2004. Two samples gave WB results with similarities to the results found for experimental BSE in sheep. When all 14 unusual cases were tested by IHC, no match to experimental BSE in sheep was found. There were uncertainties within the retrospective study, where some equivocal results were obtained due to poor tissue quality or the unavailability of the optimum brain region. However, for the samples where tissue condition was optimum, our results provide no evidence for the presence of BSE in sheep. Epidemiological interpretation of the 450 flocks sampled indicates that the maximum proportion of sheep transmissible spongiform encephalopathy cases that could be BSE is 0.66 %. This estimate is lower than calculated previously (5 %), when the analysis was based on the results of strain typing in mice.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.81254-0
2006-07-01
2019-10-14
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/87/7/2099.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.81254-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Bruce, M. E., Will, R. G., Ironside, J. W. & 10 other authors ( 1997; ). Transmissions to mice indicate that ‘new variant’ CJD is caused by the BSE agent. Nature 389, 498–501.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Cochran, W. G. ( 1963; ). Sampling Techniques (Wiley Publications in Statistics, 2nd edn). New York: Wiley.
  3. Collinge, J., Sidle, K. C. L., Meads, J., Ironside, J. & Hill, A. F. ( 1996; ). Molecular analysis of prion strain variation and the aetiology of ‘new variant’ CJD. Nature 383, 685–690.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Detwiler, L. A. ( 1992; ). Scrapie. Rev Sci Tech 11, 491–537.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Eloit, M., Adjou, K., Coulpier, M. & 18 other authors ( 2005; ). BSE agent signatures in a goat. Vet Rec 156, 523–524.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Ferguson, N. M., Ghani, A. C., Donnelly, C. A., Hagenaars, T. J. & Anderson, R. M. ( 2002; ). Estimating the human health risk from possible BSE infection of the British sheep flock. Nature 415, 420–424.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Foster, J. D. & Dickinson, A. G. ( 1988; ). The unusual properties of CH1641, a sheep-passaged isolate of scrapie. Vet Rec 123, 5–8.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Foster, J. D., Hope, J. & Fraser, H. ( 1993; ). Transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to sheep and goats. Vet Rec 133, 339–341.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. González, L., Martin, S., Begara-Mcgorum, I., Hunter, N., Houston, F., Simmons, M. & Jeffrey, M. ( 2002; ). Effects of agent strain and host genotype on PrP accumulation in the brain of sheep naturally and experimentally affected with scrapie. J Comp Pathol 126, 17–29.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. González, L., Martin, S. & Jeffrey, M. ( 2003; ). Distinct profiles of PrPd immunoreactivity in the brain of scrapie- and BSE-infected sheep: implications for differential cell targeting and PrP processing. J Gen Virol 84, 1339–1350.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. González, L., Martin, S., Houston, F. E., Hunter, N., Reid, H. W., Bellworthy, S. J. & Jeffrey, M. ( 2005; ). Phenotype of disease-associated PrP accumulation in the brain of bovine spongiform encephalopathy experimentally infected sheep. J Gen Virol 86, 827–838.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Gravenor, M. B., Ryder, S. J., Gubbins, S., Hunter, N., Baylis, M. & Kao, R. R. ( 2003; ). Searching for BSE in sheep: interpreting the results so far. Vet Rec 152, 298–299.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Harmeyer, S., Pfaff, E. & Groschup, M. H. ( 1998; ). Synthetic peptide vaccines yield monoclonal antibodies to cellular and pathological prion proteins of ruminants. J Gen Virol 79, 937–945.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Hill, A. F., Desbruslais, M., Joiner, S., Sidle, K. C. L., Gowland, I., Collinge, J., Doey, L. J. & Lantos, P. ( 1997; ). The same prion strain causes vCJD and BSE. Nature 389, 448–450.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Hope, J., Multhaup, G., Reekie, L. J., Kimberlin, R. H. & Beyreuther, K. ( 1988; ). Molecular pathology of scrapie-associated fibril protein (PrP) in mouse brain affected by the ME7 strain of scrapie. Eur J Biochem 172, 271–277.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Hope, J., Woods, S. C. E. R., Birkett, C. R., Chong, A., Bruce, M. E., Cairns, D., Goldmann, W., Hunter, N. & Bostock, C. J. ( 1999; ). Molecular analysis of ovine prion protein identifies similarities between BSE and an experimental isolate of natural scrapie, CH1641. J Gen Virol 80, 1–4.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Jeffrey, M., Martin, S., González, L., Ryder, S. J., Bellworthy, S. J. & Jackman, R. ( 2001; ). Differential diagnosis of infections with the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and scrapie agents in sheep. J Comp Pathol 125, 271–284.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Jeffrey, M., Martin, S. & González, L. ( 2003; ). Cell-associated variants of disease-specific prion protein immunolabelling are found in different sources of sheep transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. J Gen Virol 84, 1033–1046.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Jeffrey, M., González, L., Chong, A., Foster, J., Goldmann, W., Hunter, N. & Martin, S. ( 2006; ). Ovine infection with the agents of scrapie (CH1641 isolate) and bovine spongiform encephalopathy: immunochemical similarities can be resolved by immunohistochemistry. J Comp Pathol 134, 17–29.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Kao, R. R., Gravenor, M. B., Baylis, M., Bostock, C. J., Chihota, C. M., Evans, J. C., Goldmann, W., Smith, A. J. A. & McLean, A. R. ( 2002; ). The potential size and duration of an epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in British sheep. Science 295, 332–335.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Korth, C., Stierli, B., Streit, P. & 14 other authors ( 1997; ). Prion (PrPSc)-specific epitope defined by a monoclonal antibody. Nature 390, 74–77.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Lasmézas, C. I., Deslys, J.-P., Demaimay, R., Adjou, K. T., Lamoury, F., Dormont, D., Robain, O., Ironside, J. & Hauw, J.-J. ( 1996; ). BSE transmission to macaques. Nature 381, 743–744.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Lasmézas, C. I., Fournier, J.-G., Nouvel, V. & 9 other authors ( 2001; ). Adaptation of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent to primates and comparison with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: implications for human health. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98, 4142–4147.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Martin, S., González, L., Chong, A., Houston, F. E., Hunter, H. & Jeffrey, M. ( 2005; ). Immunohistochemical characteristics of disease-associated PrP are not altered by host genotype or route of inoculation following infection of sheep with bovine spongiform encephalopathy. J Gen Virol 86, 839–848.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Miller, J. M., Jenny, A. L., Taylor, W. D., Marsh, R. F., Rubenstein, R., Race, R. E. & Detweiler, A. ( 1993; ). Immunohistochemical detection of prion protein in sheep with scrapie. J Vet Diagn Invest 5, 309–316.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Nonno, R., Esposito, E., Vaccari, G., Conte, M., Marcon, S., Di Bari, M., Ligios, C., Di Guardo, G. & Agrimi, U. ( 2003; ). Molecular analysis of cases of Italian sheep scrapie and comparison with cases of bovine spongiform encephaloapthy (BSE) and experimental BSE in sheep. J Clin Microbiol 41, 4127–4133.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Prusiner, S. B., Groth, D. F., Bolton, D. C., Kent, S. B. & Hood, L. E. ( 1984; ). Purification and structural studies of a major scrapie prion protein. Cell 38, 127–134.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Sivam, S. K., Baylis, M., Gravenor, M. B., Gubbins, S. & Wilesmith, J. W. ( 2003; ). Results of a postal survey in 2002 into the occurrence of scrapie in Great Britain. Vet Rec 153, 782–783.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Stack, M., Chaplin, M. & Clark, J. ( 2002; ). Differentiation of prion protein glycoforms from naturally occurring sheep scrapie, sheep-passaged scrapie strains (CH1641 and SSBP1), bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) cases and Romney and Cheviot breed sheep experimentally inoculated with BSE using two monoclonal antibodies. Acta Neuropathol 104, 279–286.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Thuring, C. M. A., Erkens, J. H. F., Jacobs, J. G. & 8 other authors ( 2004; ). Discrimination between scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep by molecular size, immunoreactivity, and glycoprofile of prion protein. J Clin Microbiol 42, 972–980.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Towbin, H., Staehelin, T. & Gordon, J. ( 1979; ). Electrophoretic transfer of proteins from polyacrylamide gels to nitrocellulose sheets: procedure and some applications. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 76, 4350–4354.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. van Keulen, L. J. M., Schreuder, B. E. C., Meloen, R. H., Mooij-Harkes, G., Vromans, M. E. W. & Langeveld, J. P. M. ( 1996; ). Immunohistological detection of prion protein in lymphoid tissues of sheep with natural scrapie. J Clin Microbiol 34, 1228–1231.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Wells, G. A. H., Scott, A. C., Johnson, C. T., Gunning, R. F., Hancock, R. D., Jeffrey, M., Dawson, M. & Bradley, R. ( 1987; ). A novel progressive spongiform encephalopathy in cattle. Vet Rec 121, 419–420.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Will, R. G., Ironside, J. W., Zeidler, M. & 7 other authors ( 1996; ). A new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the UK. Lancet 347, 921–925.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.81254-0
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.81254-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error