1887

Abstract

An outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) occurred in China and the first case emerged in mid-November 2002. The aetiological agent of this disease was found to be a previously unknown coronavirus, SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). The detailed pathology of SARS-CoV infection and the host response to the viral infection are still not known. The gene encodes a non-structural viral protein, which is predicted to be a transmembrane protein. In this study, it was shown that the 3a protein was expressed in the lungs and intestinal tissues of SARS patients and that the protein localized to the endoplasmic reticulum in -transfected monkey kidney Vero E6 cells. experiments of chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation suggested that the 3a protein may trigger apoptosis. These data showed that overexpression of a single SARS-CoV protein can induce apoptosis .

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.80813-0
2005-07-01
2019-10-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/86/7/vir861921.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.80813-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. An, S., Chen, C.-J., Yu, X., Leibowitz, J. L. & Makino, S. ( 1999; ). Induction of apoptosis in murine coronavirus-infected cultured cells and demonstration of E protein as an apoptosis inducer. J Virol 73, 7853–7859.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Ashkenazi, A. & Dixit, V. M. ( 1998; ). Death receptors: signaling and modulation. Science 281, 1305–1308.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Breckenridge, D. G., Germain, M., Mathai, J. P., Nguyen, M. & Shore, G. C. ( 2003; ). Regulation of apoptosis by endoplasmic reticulum pathways. Oncogene 22, 8608–8618.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Chau, T.-N., Lee, K.-C., Yao, H. & 8 other authors ( 2004; ). SARS-associated viral hepatitis caused by a novel coronavirus: report of three cases. Hepatology 39, 302–310.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Chen, C.-J. & Makino, S. ( 2002; ). Murine coronavirus-induced apoptosis in 17Cl-1 cells involves a mitochondria-mediated pathway and its downstream caspase-8 activation and bid cleavage. Virology 302, 321–332.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Eléouët, J.-F., Slee, E. A., Saurini, F., Castagné, N., Poncet, D., Garrido, C., Solary, E. & Martin, S. J. ( 2000; ). The viral nucleocapsid protein of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) is cleaved by caspase-6 and -7 during TGEV-induced apoptosis. J Virol 74, 3975–3983.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Gross, A., McDonnell, J. M. & Korsmeyer, S. J. ( 1999; ). BCL-2 family members and the mitochondria in apoptosis. Genes Dev 13, 1899–1911.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Hofmann, J., Pletz, M. W. R. & Liebert, U. G. ( 1999; ). Rubella virus-induced cytopathic effect in vitro is caused by apoptosis. J Gen Virol 80, 1657–1664.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Letunic, I., Copley, R. R., Schmidt, S., Ciccarelli, F. D., Doerks, T., Schultz, J., Ponting, C. P. & Bork, P. ( 2004; ). smart 4.0: towards genomic data integration. Nucleic Acids Res 32, D142–D144.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Liu, C., Xu, H. Y. & Liu, D. X. ( 2001; ). Induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis in cultured cells by the avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus. J Virol 75, 6402–6409.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Liu, Y., Cai, Y. & Zhang, X. ( 2003; ). Induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis in cultured rat oligodendrocytes by murine coronavirus is mediated during cell entry and does not require virus replication. J Virol 77, 11952–11963.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Marianneau, P., Cardona, A., Edelman, L., Deubel, V. & Desprès, P. ( 1997; ). Dengue virus replication in human hepatoma cells activates NF-κB which in turn induces apoptotic cell death. J Virol 71, 3244–3249.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Marianneau, P., Flamand, M., Deubel, V. & Desprès, P. ( 1998; ). Induction of programmed cell death (apoptosis) by dengue virus in vitro and in vivo. Acta Cient Venez 49 (Suppl. 1), 13–17.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Marra, M. A., Jones, S. J. M., Astell, C. R. & 56 other authors ( 2003; ). The genome sequence of the SARS-associated coronavirus. Science 300, 1399–1404.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Mori, I., Nishiyama, Y., Yokochi, T. & Kimura, Y. ( 2004; ). Virus-induced neuronal apoptosis as pathological and protective responses of the host. Rev Med Virol 14, 209–216.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Ng, L. F. P., Hibberd, M. L., Ooi, E.-E. & 8 other authors ( 2004; ). A human in vitro model system for investigating genome-wide host responses to SARS coronavirus infection. BMC Infect Dis 4, 34.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. O'Brien, V. ( 1998; ). Viruses and apoptosis. J Gen Virol 79, 1833–1845.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. O'Donnell, R., Tasker, R. C. & Roe, M. F. E. ( 2003; ). SARS: understanding the coronavirus. Apoptosis may explain lymphopenia of SARS. BMJ 327, 620.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Panesar, N. S., Lam, C. W. K., Chan, M. H. M., Wong, C. K. & Sung, J. J. Y. ( 2004; ). Lymphopenia and neutrophilia in SARS are related to the prevailing serum cortisol. Eur J Clin Invest 34, 382–384.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Plymale, D. R., Comardelle, A. M., Fermin, C. D. & 7 other authors ( 1999a; ). Concentration-dependent differential induction of necrosis or apoptosis by HIV-1 lytic peptide 1. Peptides 20, 1275–1283.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Plymale, D. R., Ng Tang, D. S., Comardelle, A. M., Fermin, C. D., Lewis, D. E. & Garry, R. F. ( 1999b; ). Both necrosis and apoptosis contribute to HIV-1-induced killing of CD4 cells. AIDS 13, 1827–1839.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Price, G. E., Smith, H. & Sweet, C. ( 1997; ). Differential induction of cytotoxicity and apoptosis by influenza virus strains of differing virulence. J Gen Virol 78, 2821–2829.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Rota, P. A., Oberste, M. S., Monroe, S. S. & 32 other authors ( 2003; ). Characterization of a novel coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome. Science 300, 1394–1399.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Roulston, A., Marcellus, R. C. & Branton, P. E. ( 1999; ). Viruses and apoptosis. Annu Rev Microbiol 53, 577–628.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Ruan, Y. J., Wei, C. L., Ee, L. A. & 17 other authors ( 2003; ). Comparative full-length genome sequence analysis of 14 SARS coronavirus isolates and common mutations associated with putative origins of infection. Lancet 361, 1779–1785.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Surjit, M., Liu, B., Jameel, S., Chow, V. T. K. & Lal, S. K. ( 2004; ). The SARS coronavirus nucleocapsid protein induces actin reorganization and apoptosis in COS-1 cells in the absence of growth factors. Biochem J 383, 13–18.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Takahashi, M., Mukai, H., Toshimori, M., Miyamoto, M. & Ono, Y. ( 1998; ). Proteolytic activation of PKN by caspase-3 or related protease during apoptosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95, 11566–11571.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Tan, Y.-J., Teng, E., Shen, S. & 7 other authors ( 2004a; ). A novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus protein, U274, is transported to the cell surface and undergoes endocytosis. J Virol 78, 6723–6734.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Tan, Y.-J., Fielding, B. C., Goh, P.-Y., Shen, S., Tan, T. H. P., Lim, S. G. & Hong, W. ( 2004b; ). Overexpression of 7a, a protein specifically encoded by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, induces apoptosis via a caspase-dependent pathway. J Virol 78, 14043–14047.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. To, K. F., Tong, J. H. M., Chan, P. K. S. & 9 other authors ( 2004; ). Tissue and cellular tropism of the coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome: an in-situ hybridization study of fatal cases. J Pathol 202, 157–163.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Tsui, S. K. W., Chim, S. S. C., Lo, Y. M. D. & Chinese University of Hong Kong Molecular SARS Research Group ( 2003; ). Coronavirus genomic-sequence variations and the epidemiology of the severe acute respiratory syndrome. N Engl J Med 349, 187–188.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Yan, H., Xiao, G., Zhang, J., Hu, Y., Yuan, F., Cole, D. K., Zheng, C. & Gao, G. F. ( 2004; ). SARS coronavirus induces apoptosis in Vero E6 cells. J Med Virol 73, 323–331.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Yeh, S.-H., Wang, H.-Y., Tsai, C.-Y. & 7 other authors ( 2004; ). Characterization of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus genomes in Taiwan: molecular epidemiology and genome evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101, 2542–2547.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Yu, C.-J., Chen, Y.-C., Hsiao, C.-H. & 9 other authors ( 2004; ). Identification of a novel protein 3a from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. FEBS Lett 565, 111–116.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Zeng, F. Y., Chan, C. W. M., Chan, M. N. & 15 other authors ( 2003; ). The complete genome sequence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus strain HKU-39849 (HK-39). Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 228, 866–873.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Zeng, R., Yang, R.-F., Shi, M.-D. & 31 other authors ( 2004; ). Characterization of the 3a protein of SARS-associated coronavirus in infected Vero E6 cells and SARS patients. J Mol Biol 341, 271–279.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.80813-0
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.80813-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error