1887

Abstract

Murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (MHV-68) ORF28 is a gammaherpesvirus-specific gene of unknown function. Analysis of epitope-tagged ORF28 protein indicated that it was membrane-associated and incorporated into virions in -glycosylated, -glycosylated and unglycosylated forms. The extensive glycosylation of the small ORF28 extracellular domain – most forms of the protein appeared to be mainly carbohydrate by weight – suggested that a major function of ORF28 is to attach a variety of glycans to the virion surface. MHV-68 lacking ORF28 showed normal lytic replication and and normal latency establishment. MHV-68 ORF28 therefore encodes a small, membrane-bound and extensively glycosylated virion protein, whose function is entirely dispensable for normal, single-cycle host colonization.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.80661-0
2005-04-01
2020-10-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/86/4/vir860919.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.80661-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Adler H., Messerle M., Wagner M., Koszinowski U. H. 2000; Cloning and mutagenesis of the murine gammaherpesvirus 68 genome as an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome. J Virol 74:6964–6974 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Blasdell K., McCracken C., Morris A., Nash A. A., Begon M., Bennett M., Stewart J. P. 2003; The wood mouse is a natural host for Murid herpesvirus 4 . J Gen Virol 84:111–113 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Blaskovic D., Stancekova M., Svobodova J., Mistrikova J. 1980; Isolation of five strains of herpesviruses from two species of free living small rodents. Acta Virol 24:468
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Boname J. M., Stevenson P. G. 2001; MHC class I ubiquitination by a viral PHD/LAP finger protein. Immunity 15:627–636 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bortz E., Whitelegge J. P., Jia Q., Zhou Z. H., Stewart J. P., Wu T.-T., Sun R. 2003; Identification of proteins associated with murine gammaherpesvirus 68 virions. J Virol 77:13425–13432 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Borza C. M., Hutt-Fletcher L. M. 1998; Epstein-Barr virus recombinant lacking expression of glycoprotein gp150 infects B cells normally but is enhanced for infection of epithelial cells. J Virol 72:7577–7582
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bourne Y., Astoul C. H., Zamboni V., Peumans W. J., Menu-Bouaouiche L., van Damme E. J. M., Barre A., Rougé P. 2002; Structural basis for the unusual carbohydrate-binding specificity of jacalin towards galactose and mannose. Biochem J 364:173–180
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bryant N. A., Davis-Poynter N., Vanderplasschen A., Alcami A. 2003; Glycoprotein G isoforms from some alphaherpesviruses function as broad-spectrum chemokine binding proteins. EMBO J 22:833–846 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Cardin R. D., Brooks J. W., Sarawar S. R., Doherty P. C. 1996; Progressive loss of CD8+ T cell-mediated control of a γ -herpesvirus in the absence of CD4+ T cells. J Exp Med 184:863–871 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Coleman H. M., de Lima B., Morton V., Stevenson P. G. 2003; Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 lacking thymidine kinase shows severe attenuation of lytic cycle replication in vivo but still establishes latency. J Virol 77:2410–2417 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. de Lima B. D., May J. S., Stevenson P. G. 2004; Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 lacking gp150 shows defective virion release but establishes normal latency in vivo. J Virol 78:5103–5112 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Doherty P. C., Christensen J. P., Belz G. T., Stevenson P. G., Sangster M. Y. 2001; Dissecting the host response to a γ -herpesvirus. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 356:581–593 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Efstathiou S., Ho Y. M., Minson A. C. 1990; Cloning and molecular characterization of the murine herpesvirus 68 genome. J Gen Virol 71:1355–1364 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Helenius A., Aebi M. 2001; Intracellular functions of N -linked glycans. Science 291:2364–2369 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Herrold R. E., Marchini A., Fruehling S., Longnecker R. 1996; Glycoprotein 110, the Epstein-Barr virus homolog of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein B, is essential for Epstein-Barr virus replication in vivo. J Virol 70:2049–2054
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Johnson D. C., Frame M. C., Ligas M. W., Cross A. M., Stow N. D. 1988; Herpes simplex virus immunoglobulin G Fc receptor activity depends on a complex of two viral glycoproteins, gE and gI. J Virol 62:1347–1354
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Kapadia S. B., Molina H., van Berkel V., Speck S. H., Virgin H. W. IV 1999; Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 encodes a functional regulator of complement activation. J Virol 73:7658–7670
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Kapadia S. B., Levine B., Speck S. H., Virgin H. W. IV 2002; Critical role of complement and viral evasion of complement in acute, persistent, and latent γ -herpesvirus infection. Immunity 17:143–155 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Kurilla M. G., Heineman T., Davenport L. C., Kieff E., Hutt-Fletcher L. M. 1995; A novel Epstein-Barr virus glycoprotein gp150 expressed from the BDLF3 open reading frame. Virology 209:108–121 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Lee B. J., Koszinowski U. H., Sarawar S. R., Adler H. 2003; A gammaherpesvirus G protein-coupled receptor homologue is required for increased viral replication in response to chemokines and efficient reactivation from latency. J Immunol 170:243–251 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Lopes F. B., Colaco S., May J. S., Stevenson P. G. 2004; Characterization of the murine gammaherpesvirus 68 glycoprotein B. J Virol 78:13370–13375 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Lubinski J., Wang L., Mastellos D., Sahu A., Lambris J. D., Friedman H. M. 1999; In vivo role of complement-interacting domains of herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein gC. J Exp Med 190:1637–1646 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Molesworth S. J., Lake C. M., Borza C. M., Turk S. M., Hutt-Fletcher L. M. 2000; Epstein-Barr virus gH is essential for penetration of B cells but also plays a role in attachment of virus to epithelial cells. J Virol 74:6324–6332 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Moorman N. J., Virgin H. W. IV, Speck S. H. 2003; Disruption of the gene encoding the γ HV68 v-GPCR leads to decreased efficiency of reactivation from latency. Virology 307:179–190 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Moorman N. J., Lin C. Y., Speck S. H. 2004; Identification of candidate gammaherpesvirus 68 genes required for virus replication by signature-tagged transposon mutagenesis. J Virol 78:10282–10290 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Nolan L. A., Morgan A. J. 1995; The Epstein–Barr virus open reading frame BDLF3 codes for a 100–150 kDa glycoprotein. J Gen Virol 76:1381–1392 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Parry C. M., Simas J. P., Smith V. P., Stewart C. A., Minson A. C., Efstathiou S., Alcami A. 2000; A broad spectrum secreted chemokine binding protein encoded by a herpesvirus. J Exp Med 191:573–578 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Peñaranda M. E., Lagenaur L. A., Pierik L. T., Berline J. W., MacPhail L. A., Greenspan D., Greenspan J. S., Palefsky J. M. 1997; Expression of Epstein–Barr virus BMRF-2 and BDLF-3 genes in hairy leukoplakia. J Gen Virol 78:3361–3370
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Sastry M. V. K., Banarjee P., Patanjali S. R., Swamy M. J., Swarnalatha G. V., Surolia A. 1986; Analysis of saccharide binding to Artocarpus integrifolia lectin reveals specific recognition of T-antigen ( β -d-gal(1→3)d-GalNAc. J Biol Chem 261:11726–11733
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Schägger H., von Jagow G. 1987; Tricine-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for the separation of proteins in the range from 1 to 100 kDa. Anal Biochem 166:368–379 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Stevenson P. G., May J. S., Smith X. G., Marques S., Adler H., Koszinowski U. H., Simas J. P., Efstathiou S. 2002; K3-mediated evasion of CD8+ T cells aids amplification of a latent γ -herpesvirus. Nat Immunol 3:733–740
    [Google Scholar]
  32. van Berkel V., Preiter K., Virgin H. W. IV, Speck S. H. 1999; Identification and initial characterization of the murine gammaherpesvirus 68 gene M3, encoding an abundantly secreted protein. J Virol 73:4524–4529
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Virgin H. W. IV, Latreille P., Wamsley P., Hallsworth K., Weck K. E., Dal Canto A. J., Speck S. H. 1997; Complete sequence and genomic analysis of murine gammaherpesvirus 68. J Virol 71:5894–5904
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Weck K. E., Dal Canto A. J., Gould J. D., O'Guin A. K., Roth K. A., Saffitz J. E., Speck S. H., Virgin H. W. 1997; Murine γ -herpesvirus 68 causes severe large-vessel arteritis in mice lacking interferon- γ responsiveness: a new model for virus-induced vascular disease. Nat Med 3:1346–1353 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.80661-0
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.80661-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error