1887

Abstract

Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy is a devastating disease that causes neurological disorders and high mortality in a large number of cultivated marine fish species around the world. It is now established that several viral strains classified in the genus of the family are the aetiological agents of this disease. Betanodaviruses can be classified into four genotypes based on the coat protein gene sequence. Here, the coat protein genes of the three major strains isolated from sea bass () in France were found to be different. In addition, 21 novel strains of betanodavirus from several fish species from France, Spain, Tunisia and Tahiti were classified by using phylogenetic analysis of a partial sequence (383 nt) of the coat protein gene. Most of the isolates were grouped in the red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus type, which was subdivided into two subtypes, one of them containing only French isolates. Furthermore, an isolate obtained from sea bass during an outbreak at low temperature (15 °C) was classified as the barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus type. This is the first reported isolation from sea bass of such a strain, which is known to infect several cold-water marine fish species. In addition, a betanodavirus belonging to the striped jack nervous necrosis virus type was detected in Senagalese sole () farmed in Spain, which is the first indication of the presence of this genotype outside Japan. These findings suggest that the different genotypes can infect a variety of fish species and thus have a low host-fish species specificity.

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2004-10-01
2019-10-22
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