1887

Abstract

Tobacco plants ( cv. Xanthi-nc) inoculated with a necrotic strain of (PVY, T01 isolate) developed necrotic symptoms in some systemically infected leaves, but not in younger leaves. However, PVY expressed distinct symptoms not only in the older leaves, but also in the younger leaves, of plants that had been doubly inoculated with PVY and with (CMV, strain Pepo). A tissue blot immunoassay of tissues from various positions of the stem detected PVY weakly in each stem, but not in the shoot apex, of singly infected plants, whereas PVY was detected at high levels in almost all sections of doubly infected plants. CMV was also detected at high levels in sections of singly and doubly infected plants. Immunohistochemistry of stem tissues showed that in singly infected plants, PVY was confined to external phloem cells and was not detected in internal phloem cells. However, in doubly infected plants, PVY was distributed uniformly throughout whole tissues, including the external phloem, xylem parenchyma and internal phloem cells. In plants that were doubly infected with PVY and PepoΔ2b, a modified CMV that cannot translate the 2b protein, the spread of PVY was restricted as in singly infected plants. These results suggested that the plant host has a counterdefence mechanism that restricts systemic spread of PVY T01, and that the 2b protein of CMV strain Pepo negates this restriction.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.80176-0
2004-11-01
2019-10-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/85/11/vir853405.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.80176-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Agranovsky, A. A., Folimonov, A. S., Folimonova, S. Yu., Morozov, S. Yu., Schiemann, J., Lesemann, D. & Atabekov, J. G. ( 1998; ). Beet yellows closterovirus HSP70-like protein mediates the cell-to-cell movement of a potexvirus transport-deficient mutant and a hordeivirus-based chimeric virus. J Gen Virol 79, 889–895.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Anandalakshmi, R., Pruss, G. J., Ge, X., Marathe, R., Mallory, A. C., Smith, T. H. & Vance, V. B. ( 1998; ). A viral suppressor of gene silencing in plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95, 13079–13084.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Andrianifahanana, M., Lovins, K., Dute, R., Sikora, E. & Murphy, J. F. ( 1997; ). Pathway for phloem-dependent movement of pepper mottle potyvirus in the stem of Capsicum annuum. Phytopathology 87, 892–898.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Baulcombe, D. ( 2002; ). Viral suppression of systemic silencing. Trends Microbiol 10, 306–308.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bonneau, C., Brugidou, C., Chen, L., Beachy, R. N. & Fauquet, C. ( 1998; ). Expression of the rice yellow mottle virus P1 protein in vitro and in vivo and its involvement in virus spread. Virology 244, 79–86.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Brigneti, G., Voinnet, O., Li, W.-X., Ji, L.-H., Ding, S.-W. & Baulcombe, D. C. ( 1998; ). Viral pathogenicity determinants are suppressors of transgene silencing in Nicotiana benthamiana. EMBO J 17, 6739–6746.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Carrington, J. C., Kasschau, K. D., Mahajan, S. K. & Schaad, M. C. ( 1996; ). Cell-to-cell and long-distance transport of viruses in plants. Plant Cell 8, 1669–1681.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Cheng, N.-H., Su, C.-L., Carter, S. A. & Nelson, R. S. ( 2000; ). Vascular invasion routes and systemic accumulation patterns of tobacco mosaic virus in Nicotiana benthamiana. Plant J 23, 349–362.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Choi, S. K., Yoon, J. Y., Ryu, K. H., Choi, J. K., Palukaitis, P. & Park, W. M. ( 2002; ). Systemic movement of a movement-deficient strain of Cucumber mosaic virus in zucchini squash is facilitated by a cucurbit-infecting potyvirus. J Gen Virol 83, 3173–3178.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Clark, M. F. & Adams, A. N. ( 1977; ). Characteristics of the microplate method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of plant viruses. J Gen Virol 34, 475–483.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Cooper, B., Schmitz, I., Rao, A. L. N., Beachy, R. N. & Dodds, J. A. ( 1996; ). Cell-to-cell transport of movement-defective cucumber mosaic and tobacco mosaic viruses in transgenic plants expressing heterologous movement protein genes. Virology 216, 208–213.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Cronin, S., Verchot, J., Haldeman-Cahill, R., Schaad, M. C. & Carrington, J. C. ( 1995; ). Long-distance movement factor: a transport function of the potyvirus helper component proteinase. Plant Cell 7, 549–559.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. De Jong, W. & Ahlquist, P. ( 1992; ). A hybrid plant RNA virus made by transferring the noncapsid movement protein from a rod-shaped to an icosahedral virus is competent for systemic infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89, 6808–6812.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Ding, S. W., Li, W. X. & Symons, R. H. ( 1995; ). A novel naturally occurring hybrid gene encoded by a plant RNA virus facilitates long distance virus movement. EMBO J 14, 5762–5772.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Ding, B., Itaya, A. & Qi, Y. ( 2003; ). Symplasmic protein and RNA traffic: regulatory points and regulatory factors. Curr Opin Plant Biol 6, 596–602.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Fedorkin, O. N., Solovyev, A. G., Yelina, N. E., Zamyatnin, A. A., Jr, Zinovkin, R. A., Mäkinen, K., Schiemann, J. & Morozov, S. Yu. ( 2001; ). Cell-to-cell movement of potato virus X involves distinct functions of the coat protein. J Gen Virol 82, 449–458.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Giesman-Cookmeyer, D., Silver, S., Vaewhongs, A. A., Lommel, S. A. & Deom, C. M. ( 1995; ). Tobamovirus and dianthovirus movement proteins are functionally homologous. Virology 213, 38–45.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Gilbertson, R. L. & Lucas, W. J. ( 1996; ). How do viruses traffic on the ‘vascular highway’? Trends Plant Sci 1, 260–268.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Guerini, M. N. & Murphy, J. F. ( 1999; ). Resistance of Capsicum annuum ‘Avelar’ to pepper mottle potyvirus and alleviation of this resistance by co-infection with cucumber mosaic cucumovirus are associated with virus movement. J Gen Virol 80, 2785–2792.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Guo, H. S. & Ding, S. W. ( 2002; ). A viral protein inhibits the long range signaling activity of the gene silencing signal. EMBO J 21, 398–407.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Hacker, D. L. & Fowler, B. C. ( 2000; ). Complementation of the host range restriction of southern cowpea mosaic virus in bean by southern bean mosaic virus. Virology 266, 140–149.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Hataya, T., Inoue, A. K., Ohshima, K. & Shikata, E. ( 1994; ). Characterization and strain identification of a potato virus Y isolate non-reactive with monoclonal antibodies specific to the ordinary and necrotic strains. Intervirology 37, 12–19.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Hilf, M. E. & Dawson, W. O. ( 1993; ). The tobamovirus capsid protein functions as a host-specific determinant of long-distance movement. Virology 193, 106–114.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Kaplan, I. B., Shintaku, M. H., Li, Q., Zhang, L., Marsh, L. E. & Palukaitis, P. ( 1995; ). Complementation of virus movement in transgenic tobacco expressing the cucumber mosaic virus 3a gene. Virology 209, 188–199.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Kasschau, K. D. & Carrington, J. C. ( 2001; ). Long-distance movement and replication maintenance functions correlate with silencing suppression activity of potyviral HC-Pro. Virology 285, 71–81.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Kobori, T., Miyagawa, M., Nishioka, K., Ohki, S. T. & Osaki, T. ( 2002; ). Amino acid 129 of Cucumber mosaic virus coat protein determines local symptom expression and systemic movement in Tetragonia expansa, Momordica charantia and Physalis floridana. J Gen Plant Pathol 68, 81–88.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Kobori, T., Osaki, T. & Ohki, S. T. ( 2003; ). Cucumber mosaic virus establishes systemic infection at increased temperature following viral entrance into the phloem pathway of Tetragonia expansa. Phytopathology 93, 1445–1451.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Kunkel, T. A. ( 1985; ). Rapid and efficient site-specific mutagenesis without phenotypic selection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 82, 488–492.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Lazarowitz, S. G. & Beachy, R. N. ( 1999; ). Viral movement proteins as probes for intracellular and intercellular trafficking in plants. Plant Cell 11, 535–548.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Li, W. X. & Ding, S. W. ( 2001; ). Viral suppressors of RNA silencing. Curr Opin Biotechnol 12, 150–154.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Lucas, W. J. & Gilbertson, R. L. ( 1994; ). Plasmodesmata in relation to viral movement within leaf tissues. Annu Rev Phytopathol 32, 387–411.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Malyshenko, S. I., Kondakova, O. A., Taliansky, M. E. & Atabekov, J. G. ( 1989; ). Plant virus transport function: complementation by helper viruses is non-specific. J Gen Virol 70, 2751–2757.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Marathe, R., Anandalakshmi, R., Smith, T. H., Pruss, G. J. & Vance, V. B. ( 2000; ). RNA viruses as inducers, suppressors and targets of post-transcriptional gene silencing. Plant Mol Biol 43, 295–306.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Nelson, R. S. & van Bel, A. J. E. ( 1998; ). The mystery of virus trafficking into, through and out of vascular tissue. Prog Bot 59, 476–533.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Osaki, T., Shobara, K. & Takahashi, T. ( 1973; ). A strain of cucumber mosaic virus isolated from Cucurbita pepo. Kansai Pl Prot 15, 135–136 (in Japanese).
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Ratcliff, F., Harrison, B. D. & Baulcombe, D. C. ( 1997; ). A similarity between viral defense and gene silencing in plants. Science 276, 1558–1560.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Ratcliff, F. G., MacFarlane, S. A. & Baulcombe, D. C. ( 1999; ). Gene silencing without DNA: RNA-mediated cross-protection between viruses. Plant Cell 11, 1207–1215.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Ryabov, E. V., Robinson, D. J. & Taliansky, M. E. ( 1999; ). A plant virus-encoded protein facilitates long-distance movement of heterologous viral RNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96, 1212–1217.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Ryabov, E. V., Fraser, G., Mayo, M. A., Barker, H. & Taliansky, M. ( 2001; ). Umbravirus gene expression helps Potato leafroll virus to invade mesophyll tissues and to be transmitted mechanically between plants. Virology 286, 363–372.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Sáenz, P., Salvador, B., Simón-Mateo, C., Kasschau, K. D., Carrington, J. C. & García, J. A. ( 2002; ). Host-specific involvement of the HC protein in the long-distance movement of potyviruses. J Virol 76, 1922–1931.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Saiga, T., Fujiwara, M., Saitoh, H., Ohki, S. T. & Osaki, T. ( 1998; ). Comparative analysis for replication and movement of cucumber mosaic virus in Cucumis figarei and C. melo. Ann Phytopathol Soc Jpn 64, 255–263.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Saitoh, H., Fujiwara, M., Ohki, S. T. & Osaki, T. ( 1999; ). The coat protein gene is essential for the systemic infection of cucumber mosaic virus in Cucumis figarei at high temperature. Ann Phytopathol Soc Jpn 65, 248–253.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Scholthof, H. B., Scholthof, K.-B. G., Kikkert, M. & Jackson, A. O. ( 1995; ). Tomato bushy stunt virus spread is regulated by two nested genes that function in cell-to-cell movement and host-dependent systemic invasion. Virology 213, 425–438.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Séron, K. & Haenni, A. L. ( 1996; ). Vascular movement of plant viruses. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 9, 435–442.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Soards, A. J., Murphy, A. M., Palukaitis, P. & Carr, J. P. ( 2002; ). Virulence and differential local and systemic spread of Cucumber mosaic virus in tobacco are affected by the CMV 2b protein. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 15, 647–653.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Spitsin, S., Steplewski, K., Fleysh, N., Belanger, H., Mikheeva, T., Shivprasad, S., Dawson, W., Koprowski, H. & Yusibov, V. ( 1999; ). Expression of alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein in tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) deficient in the production of its native coat protein supports long-distance movement of a chimeric TMV. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96, 2549–2553.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Takanami, Y. ( 1981; ). A striking change in symptoms on cucumber mosaic virus-infected tobacco plants induced by a satellite RNA. Virology 109, 120–126.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Takeshita, M. & Takanami, Y. ( 2000; ). Defective long-distance transport of Cucumber mosaic virus in radish is efficiently complemented by Turnip mosaic virus. J Gen Plant Pathol 66, 254–257.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Taliansky, M. E. & García-Arenal, F. ( 1995; ). Role of cucumovirus capsid protein in long-distance movement within the infected plant. J Virol 69, 916–922.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Turgeon, R. ( 1989; ). The sink-source transition in leaves. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 40, 119–138.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Vance, V. & Vaucheret, H. ( 2001; ). RNA silencing in plants – defense and counterdefense. Science 292, 2277–2280.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Voinnet, O. ( 2001; ). RNA silencing as a plant immune system against viruses. Trends Genet 17, 449–459.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Voinnet, O., Pinto, Y. M. & Baulcombe, D. C. ( 1999; ). Suppression of gene silencing: a general strategy used by diverse DNA and RNA viruses of plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96, 14147–14152.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Waigmann, E., Chen, M.-H., Bachmaier, R., Ghoshroy, S. & Citovsky, V. ( 2000; ). Regulation of plasmodesmal transport by phosphorylation of tobacco mosaic virus cell-to-cell movement protein. EMBO J 19, 4875–4884.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Waterhouse, P. M., Wang, M.-B. & Lough, T. ( 2001; ). Gene silencing as an adaptive defence against viruses. Nature 411, 834–842.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.80176-0
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.80176-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error