1887

Abstract

Studies using the alphavirus Semliki Forest virus have indicated that the viral E1 fusion protein forms two types of pore: fusion pores and ion-permeable pores. The formation of ion-permeable pores has not been generally accepted, partly because it was not evident how the protein might form these different pores. Here it is proposed that the choice of the target membrane determines whether a fusion pore or ion-permeable pores are formed. The fusion protein is activated in the endosome and for steric reasons only a fraction of the activated molecules can interact with the endosomal membrane. This target membrane reaction forms the fusion pore. It is proposed that the rest of the activated molecules interact with the membrane in which the protein is anchored and that this self-membrane reaction leads to formation of ion-permeable pores, which can be detected in the target membrane after fusion of the viral membrane into the target membrane.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.79845-0
2004-06-01
2019-10-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/85/6/vir851695.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.79845-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Carrasco, L. ( 1981; ). Modification of membrane permeability induced by animal viruses early in infection. Virology 113, 623–629.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Carrasco, L. ( 1995; ). Modification of membrane permeability by animal viruses. Adv Virus Res 45, 61–112.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Danthi, P., Tosteson, M., Li, Q. & Chow, M. ( 2003; ). Genome delivery and ion channel properties are altered in VP4 mutants of poliovirus. J Virol 77, 5266–5274.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Dick, M., Barth, B. U. & Kempf, Ch. ( 1996; ). The E1 protein is mandatory for pore formation by Semliki Forest virus spikes. Virology 220, 204–207.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Flint, S. J., Enquist, L. W., Krug, R. M., Racaniello, V. R. & Skalka, A. M. ( 2000; ). Virology. Molecular Biology, Pathogenesis, and Control. Washington, DC: ASM Press.
  6. Garoff, H., Wilschut, J., Liljeström, P. & 7 other authors ( 1994; ). Assembly and entry mechanisms of Semliki Forest virus. Arch Virol 9, 329–338.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Hamill, O. P., Marty, A., Neher, E., Sakmann, B. & Sigworth, F. J. ( 1981; ). Improved patch-clamp techniques for high resolution current recording from cells and cell-free membrane patches. Pflügers Arch 391, 85–100.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Käsermann, F. & Kempf, C. ( 1996; ). Low pH-induced pore formation by spike proteins of enveloped viruses. J Gen Virol 77, 3025–3032.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Kempf, C., Michel, M. R., Kohler, U. & Koblet, H. ( 1987; ). Can viral envelope proteins act as or induce proton channels? Biosci Rep 7, 761–769.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Kielian, M. ( 1995; ). Membrane fusion and the alphavirus life cycle. Adv Virus Res 45, 113–151.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Koschinski, A., Wengler, G., Wengler, G. & Repp, H. ( 2003; ). The membrane proteins of flaviviruses form ion-permeable pores in the target membrane after fusion: identification of the pores and analysis of their possible role in virus infection. J Gen Virol 84, 1711–1721.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Lamb, R. A. & Krug, R. M. ( 2001; ). Orthomyxoviridae: the viruses and their replication. In Fields Virology, 4th edn, pp. 1487–1531. Edited by D. M. Knipe & P. M. Howley. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  13. Lanzrein, M., Weingart, R. & Kempf, C. ( 1993; ). pH-dependent pore formation in Semliki Forest virus-infected Aedes albopictus cells. Virology 193, 296–302.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Marsh, M. & Helenius, A. ( 1989; ). Virus entry into animal cells. Adv Virus Res 36, 107–151.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Nyfeler, S., Senn, K. & Kempf, C. ( 2001; ). Expression of Semliki Forest virus E1 protein in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem 276, 15453–15457.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Pérez, L. & Carrasco, L. ( 1994; ). Involvement of the vacuolar H+-ATPase in animal virus entry. J Gen Virol 75, 2595–2606.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Samsonov, A. V., Chatterjee, P. K., Razinkov, V. I., Eng, C. H., Kielian, M. & Cohen, F. S. ( 2002; ). Effects of membrane potential and sphingolipid structures on fusion of Semliki Forest virus. J Virol 76, 12691–12702.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Schlegel, A., Omar, A., Jentsch, P., Morell, A. & Kempf, C. ( 1991; ). Semliki Forest virus envelope proteins function as proton channels. Biosci Rep 11, 243–255.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Schlesinger, S. & Schlesinger, M. J. ( 2001; ). Togaviridae: the viruses and their replication. In Fields Virology, 4th edn, pp. 895–916. Edited by D. M. Knipe & P. M. Howley. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  20. Silver, R. B. ( 1998; ). Ratio imaging: practical considerations for measuring intracellular calcium and pH in living tissue. Methods Cell Biol 56, 237–251.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Spyr, C. A., Kasermann, F. & Kempf, C. ( 1995; ). Identification of the pore forming element of Semliki Forest spikes. FEBS Lett 375, 134–136.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Strauss, J. H. & Strauss, E. G. ( 1994; ). The alphaviruses: gene expression, replication and evolution. Microbiol Rev 58, 491–562.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Wengler, G. & Wengler, G. ( 2002; ). In vitro analyses of factors involved in the disassembly of Sindbis virus cores by 60S ribosomal subunits identify a possible role of low pH in this process. J Gen Virol 83, 2417–2426.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Wengler, G., Koschinski, A., Wengler, G. & Dreyer, F. ( 2003; ). Entry of alphaviruses at the plasma membrane converts the viral surface proteins into an ion-permeable pore that can be detected by electrophysiological analyses of whole-cell membrane currents. J Gen Virol 84, 173–181.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Young, J. A. T. ( 2001; ). Togaviridae: virus entry and uncoating. In Fields Virology, 4th edn, pp. 87–103. Edited by D. M. Knipe & P. M. Howley. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.79845-0
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.79845-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error