1887

Abstract

Avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV), recently identified from a chicken with hepatitis–splenomegaly syndrome in the United States, is genetically and antigenically related to human and swine HEVs. In this study, sequencing of the genome was completed and an attempt was made to infect rhesus monkeys with avian HEV. The full-length genome of avian HEV, excluding the poly(A) tail, is 6654 bp in length, which is about 600 bp shorter than that of human and swine HEVs. Similar to human and swine HEV genomes, the avian HEV genome consists of a short 5′ non-coding region (NCR) followed by three partially overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) and a 3′NCR. Avian HEV shares about 50 % nucleotide sequence identity over the complete genome, 48–51 % identity in ORF1, 46–48 % identity in ORF2 and only 29–34 % identity in ORF3 with human and swine HEV strains. Significant genetic variations such as deletions and insertions, particularly in ORF1 of avian HEV, were observed. However, motifs in the putative functional domains of ORF1, such as the helicase and methyltransferase, were relatively conserved between avian HEV and mammalian HEVs, supporting the conclusion that avian HEV is a member of the genus . Phylogenetic analysis revealed that avian HEV represents a branch distinct from human and swine HEVs. Swine HEV infects non-human primates and possibly humans and thus may be zoonotic. An attempt was made to determine whether avian HEV also infects across species by experimentally inoculating two rhesus monkeys with avian HEV. Evidence of virus infection was not observed in the inoculated monkeys as there was no seroconversion, viraemia, faecal virus shedding or serum liver enzyme elevation. The results from this study confirmed that avian HEV is related to, but distinct from, human and swine HEVs; however, unlike swine HEV, avian HEV is probably not transmissible to non-human primates.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.79841-0
2004-06-01
2019-10-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/85/6/vir851609.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.79841-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Arankalle, V. A., Chobe, L. P., Joshi, M. V., Chadha, M. S., Kundu, B. & Walimbe, A. M. ( 2002; ). Human and swine hepatitis E viruses from Western India belong to different genotypes. J Hepatol 36, 417–425.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Buisson, Y., Grandadam, M., Nicand, E. & 7 other authors ( 2000; ). Identification of a novel hepatitis E virus in Nigeria. J Gen Virol 81, 903–909.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Chandler, J. D., Riddell, M. A., Li, F., Love, R. J. & Anderson, D. A. ( 1999; ). Serological evidence for swine hepatitis E virus infection in Australian pig herds. Vet Microbiol 68, 95–105.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Choi, I. S., Kwon, H. J., Shin, N. R. & Yoo, H. S. ( 2003; ). Identification of swine hepatitis E virus (HEV) and prevalence of anti-HEV antibodies in swine and human populations in Korea. J Clin Microbiol 41, 3602–3608.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Drobeniuc, J., Favorov, M. O., Shapiro, C. N. & 7 other authors ( 2001; ). Hepatitis E virus antibody prevalence among persons who work with swine. J Infect Dis 184, 1594–1597.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Emerson, S. U. & Purcell, R. H. ( 2003; ). Hepatitis E virus. Rev Med Virol 13, 145–154.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Erker, J. C., Desai, S. M., Schlauder, G. G., Dawson, G. J. & Mushahwar, I. K. ( 1999; ). A hepatitis E virus variant from the United States: molecular characterization and transmission in cynomolgus macaques. J Gen Virol 80, 681–690.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Garkavenko, O., Obriadina, A., Meng, J., Anderson, D. A., Benard, H. J., Schroeder, B. A., Khudyakov, Y. E., Fields, H. A. & Croxson, M. C. ( 2001; ). Detection and characterisation of swine hepatitis E virus in New Zealand. J Med Virol 65, 525–529.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Halbur, P. G., Kasorndorkbua, C., Gilbert, C., Guenette, D., Potters, M. B., Purcell, R. H., Emerson, S. U., Toth, T. E. & Meng, X. J. ( 2001; ). Comparative pathogenesis of infection of pigs with hepatitis E viruses recovered from a pig and a human. J Clin Microbiol 39, 918–923.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Haqshenas, G., Shivaprasad, H. L., Woolcock, P. R., Read, D. H. & Meng, X. J. ( 2001; ). Genetic identification and characterization of a novel virus related to human hepatitis E virus from chickens with hepatitis–splenomegaly syndrome in the United States. J Gen Virol 82, 2449–2462.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Haqshenas, G., Huang, F. F., Fenaux, M., Guenette, D. K., Pierson, F. W., Larsen, C. T., Shivaprasad, H. L., Toth, T. E. & Meng, X. J. ( 2002; ). The putative capsid protein of the newly identified avian hepatitis E virus shares antigenic epitopes with that of swine and human hepatitis E viruses and chicken big liver and spleen disease virus. J Gen Virol 83, 2201–2209.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Hsieh, S. Y., Meng, X. J., Wu, Y. H., Liu, S. T., Tam, A. W., Lin, D. Y. & Liaw, Y. F. ( 1999; ). Identity of a novel swine hepatitis E virus in Taiwan forming a monophyletic group with Taiwan isolates of human hepatitis E virus. J Clin Microbiol 37, 3828–3834.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Huang, C. C., Nguyen, D., Fernandez, J., Yun, K. Y., Fry, K. E., Bradley, D. W., Tam, A. W. & Reyes, G. R. ( 1992; ). Molecular cloning and sequencing of the Mexico isolate of hepatitis E virus (HEV). Virology 191, 550–558.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Huang, F. F., Haqshenas, G., Guenette, D. K., Halbur, P. G., Schommer, S. K., Pierson, F. W., Toth, T. E. & Meng, X. J. ( 2002a; ). Detection by reverse transcription-PCR and genetic characterization of field isolates of swine hepatitis E virus from pigs in different geographic regions of the United States. J Clin Microbiol 40, 1326–1332.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Huang, F. F., Haqshenas, G., Shivaprasad, H. L. & 7 other authors ( 2002b; ). Heterogeneity and seroprevalence of a newly identified avian hepatitis E virus from chickens in the United States. J Clin Microbiol 40, 4197–4202.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Kabrane-Lazizi, Y., Fine, J. B., Elm, J. & 7 other authors ( 1999a; ). Evidence for widespread infection of wild rats with hepatitis E virus in the United States. Am J Trop Med Hyg 61, 331–335.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Kabrane-Lazizi, Y., Meng, X. J., Purcell, R. H. & Emerson, S. U. ( 1999b; ). Evidence that the genomic RNA of hepatitis E virus is capped. J Virol 73, 8848–8850.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Kabrane-Lazizi, Y., Zhang, M., Purcell, R. H., Miller, K. D., Davey, R. T. & Emerson, S. U. ( 2001; ). Acute hepatitis caused by a novel strain of hepatitis E virus most closely related to United States strains. J Gen Virol 82, 1687–1693.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Koonin, E. V., Gorbalenya, A. E., Purdy, M. A., Rozanov, M. N., Reyes, G. R. & Bradley, D. W. ( 1992; ). Computer-assisted assignment of functional domains in the nonstructural polyprotein of hepatitis E virus: delineation of an additional group of positive-strand RNA plant and animal viruses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89, 8259–8263.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Meng, X. J. ( 2000a; ). Novel strains of hepatitis E virus identified from humans and other animal species: is hepatitis E a zoonosis? J Hepatol 33, 842–845.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Meng, X. J. ( 2000b; ). Zoonotic and xenozoonotic risks of hepatitis E virus. Infect Dis Rev 2, 35–41.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Meng, X. J. ( 2003; ). Swine hepatitis E virus: cross-species infection and risk in xenotransplantation. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 278, 185–216.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Meng, X. J., Purcell, R. H., Halbur, P. G., Lehman, J. R., Webb, D. M., Tsareva, T. S., Haynes, J. S., Thacker, B. J. & Emerson, S. U. ( 1997; ). A novel virus in swine is closely related to the human hepatitis E virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94, 9860–9865.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Meng, X. J., Halbur, P. G., Haynes, J. S., Tsareva, T. S., Bruna, J. D., Royer, R. L., Purcell, R. H. & Emerson, S. U. ( 1998a; ). Experimental infection of pigs with the newly identified swine hepatitis E virus (swine HEV), but not with human strains of HEV. Arch Virol 143, 1405–1415.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Meng, X. J., Halbur, P. G., Shapiro, M. S., Govindarajan, S., Bruna, J. D., Mushahwar, I. K., Purcell, R. H. & Emerson, S. U. ( 1998b; ). Genetic and experimental evidence for cross-species infection by swine hepatitis E virus. J Virol 72, 9714–9721.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Meng, X. J., Dea, S., Engle, R. E. & 10 other authors ( 1999; ). Prevalence of antibodies to the hepatitis E virus in pigs from countries where hepatitis E is common or is rare in the human population. J Med Virol 59, 297–302.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Meng, X. J., Wiseman, B., Elvinger, F., Guenette, D. K., Toth, T. E., Engle, R. E., Emerson, S. U. & Purcell, R. H. ( 2002; ). Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis E virus in veterinarians working with swine and in normal blood donors in the United States and other countries. J Clin Microbiol 40, 117–122.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Okamoto, H., Takahashi, M., Nishizawa, T., Fukai, K., Muramatsu, U. & Yoshikawa, A. ( 2001; ). Analysis of the complete genome of indigenous swine hepatitis E virus isolated in Japan. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 289, 929–936.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Payne, C. J., Ellis, T. M., Plant, S. L., Gregory, A. R. & Wilcox, G. E. ( 1999; ). Sequence data suggests big liver and spleen disease virus (BLSV) is genetically related to hepatitis E virus. Vet Microbiol 68, 119–125.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Pei, Y. & Yoo, D. ( 2002; ). Genetic characterization and sequence heterogeneity of a Canadian isolate of swine hepatitis E virus. J Clin Microbiol 40, 4021–4029.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Schlauder, G. G., Dawson, G. J., Erker, J. C., Kwo, P. Y., Knigge, M. F., Smalley, D. L., Rosenblatt, J. E., Desai, S. M. & Mushahwar, I. K. ( 1998; ). The sequence and phylogenetic analysis of a novel hepatitis E virus isolated from a patient with acute hepatitis reported in the United States. J Gen Virol 79, 447–456.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Schlauder, G. G., Desai, S. M., Zanetti, A. R., Tassopoulos, N. C. & Mushahwar, I. K. ( 1999; ). Novel hepatitis E virus (HEV) isolates from Europe: evidence for additional genotypes of HEV. J Med Virol 57, 243–251.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Takahashi, M., Nishizawa, T., Yoshikawa, A., Sato, S., Isoda, N., Ido, K., Sugano, K. & Okamoto, H. ( 2002; ). Identification of two distinct genotypes of hepatitis E virus in a Japanese patient with acute hepatitis who had not travelled abroad. J Gen Virol 83, 1931–1940.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Takahashi, M., Nishizawa, T. & Okamoto, H. ( 2003a; ). Identification of a genotype III swine hepatitis E virus that was isolated from a Japanese pig born in 1990 and that is most closely related to Japanese isolates of human hepatitis E virus. J Clin Microbiol 41, 1342–1343.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Takahashi, M., Nishizawa, T., Miyajima, H., Gotanda, Y., Iita, T., Tsuda, F. & Okamoto, H. ( 2003b; ). Swine hepatitis E virus strains in Japan form four phylogenetic clusters comparable with those of Japanese isolates of human hepatitis E virus. J Gen Virol 84, 851–862.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Tam, A. W., Smith, M. M., Guerra, M. E., Huang, C. C., Bradley, D. W., Fry, K. E. & Reyes, G. R. ( 1991; ). Hepatitis E virus (HEV): molecular cloning and sequencing of the full-length viral genome. Virology 185, 120–131.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Tei, S., Kitajima, N., Takahashi, K. & Mishiro, S. ( 2003; ). Zoonotic transmission of hepatitis E virus from deer to human beings. Lancet 362, 371–373.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Tsarev, S. A., Binn, L. N., Gomatos, P. J., Arthur, R. R., Monier, M. K., van Cuyck-Gandre, H., Longer, C. F. & Innis, B. L. ( 1999; ). Phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis E virus isolates from Egypt. J Med Virol 57, 68–74.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Tyagi, S., Korkaya, H., Zafrullah, M., Jameel, S. & Lal, S. K. ( 2002; ). The phosphorylated form of the ORF3 protein of hepatitis E virus interacts with its non-glycosylated form of the major capsid protein, ORF2. J Biol Chem 277, 22759–22767.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. van der Poel, W. H., Verschoor, F., van der Heide, R., Herrera, M. I., Vivo, A., Kooreman, M. & de Roda Husman, A. M. ( 2001; ). Hepatitis E virus sequences in swine related to sequences in humans, The Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis 7, 970–976.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Wang, Y., Ling, R., Erker, J. C., Zhang, H., Li, H., Desai, S., Mushahwar, I. K. & Harrison, T. J. ( 1999; ). A divergent genotype of hepatitis E virus in Chinese patients with acute hepatitis. J Gen Virol 80, 169–177.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Zafrullah, M., Ozdener, M. H., Panda, S. K. & Jameel, S. ( 1997; ). The ORF3 protein of hepatitis E virus is a phosphoprotein that associates with the cytoskeleton. J Virol 71, 9045–9053.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Zhang, M., Purcell, R. H. & Emerson, S. U. ( 2001; ). Identification of the 5′ terminal sequence of the SAR-55 and MEX-14 strains of hepatitis E virus and confirmation that the genome is capped. J Med Virol 65, 293–295.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.79841-0
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.79841-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error