1887

Abstract

Recombinant pestivirus envelope glycoprotein E has been shown to interfere with dsRNA-induced interferon (IFN-/) synthesis. This study demonstrated that authentic, enzymically active E produced in mammalian cells prevented a dsRNA-induced IFN response when present in the supernatant of bovine cells. Strikingly, IFN synthesis of cells expressing E was eliminated after extracellular addition, but not transfection, of dsRNA. Importantly, the same applied to cells infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) expressing E but lacking the N-terminal protease N. Free E concentrations circulating in the blood of animals persistently infected with BVDV were determined to be approximately 50 ng ml, i.e. at a similar order of magnitude as that displaying an effect on dsRNA-induced IFN expression . Whilst N blocks interferon regulatory factor-3-dependent IFN induction in infected cells, E may prevent constant IFN induction in uninfected cells by dsRNA that could originate from pestivirus-infected cells. This probably contributes to the survival of persistently BVDV-infected animals and maintains viral persistence in the host population.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.2008/003749-0
2008-10-01
2021-10-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/89/10/2501.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.2008/003749-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Adler B., Adler H., Pfister H., Jungi T. W., Peterhans E. 1997; Macrophages infected with cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus release a factor(s) capable of priming uninfected macrophages for activation-induced apoptosis. J Virol 71:3255–3258
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bauhofer O., Summerfield A., Sakoda Y., Tratschin J.-D., Hofmann M. A., Ruggli N. 2007; Classical swine fever virus Npro interacts with interferon regulatory factor 3 and induces its proteasomal degradation. J Virol 81:3087–3096 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Beutler B., Eidenschenk C., Crozat K., Imler J. L., Takeuchi O., Hoffmann J. A., Akira S. 2007; Genetic analysis of resistance to viral infection. Nat Rev Immunol 7:753–766 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Brownlie J. 1990; Pathogenesis of mucosal disease and molecular aspects of bovine virus diarrhoea virus. Vet Microbiol 23:371–382 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Charleston B., Fray M. D., Baigent S., Carr B. V., Morrison W. I. 2001; Establishment of persistent infection with non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhoea virus in cattle is associated with a failure to induce type I interferon. J Gen Virol 82:1893–1897
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Chen Z. H., Rijnbrand R., Jangra R. K., Devaraj S. G., Qu L., Ma Y. H., Lemon S. M., Li K. 2007; Ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of interferon regulatory factor-3 induced by Npro from a cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus. Virology 366:277–292 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Corapi W. V., Elliott R. D., French T. W., Arthur D. G., Bezek D. M., Dubovi E. J. 1990; Thrombocytopenia and hemorrhages in veal calves infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus. J Am Vet Med Assoc 196:590–596
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Der S. D., Zhou A. M., Williams B. R. G., Silverman R. H. 1998; Identification of genes differentially regulated by interferon alpha, beta, or gamma using oligonucleotide arrays. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:15623–15628 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Gil L. H. V. G., Ansari I. H., Vassilev V., Liang D. L., Lai V. C. H., Zhong W. D., Hong Z., Dubovi E. J., Donis R. O. 2006; The amino-terminal domain of bovine viral diarrhea virus Npro protein is necessary for alpha/beta interferon antagonism. J Virol 80:900–911 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Hilton L., Moganeradj K., Zhang G., Chen Y. H., Randall R. E., McCauley J. W., Goodbourn S. 2006; The NPro product of bovine viral diarrhea virus inhibits DNA binding by interferon regulatory factor 3 and targets it for proteasomal degradation. J Virol 80:11723–11732 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Iqbal M., Poole E., Goodbourn S., McCauley J. W. 2004; Role for bovine viral diarrhea virus Erns glycoprotein in the control of activation of beta interferon by double-stranded RNA. J Virol 78:136–145 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Kost T. A., Condreay J. P., Jarvis D. L. 2005; Baculovirus as versatile vectors for protein expression in insect and mammalian cells. Nat Biotechnol 23:567–575 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Krey T., Thiel H. J., Rümenapf T. 2005; Acid-resistant bovine pestivirus requires activation for pH-triggered fusion during entry. J Virol 79:4191–4200 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Majde J. A., Guha-Thakurta N., Chen Z., Bredow S., Krueger J. M. 1998; Spontaneous release of stable viral double-stranded RNA into the extracellular medium by influenza virus-infected MDCK epithelial cells: implications for the viral acute phase response. Arch Virol 143:2371–2380 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Meyers G., Thiel H.-J. 1996; Molecular characterization of pestiviruses. In Advances in Virus Research pp 53–118Edited by Maramorosch K., Murphy F. A., Shatkin A. J. San Diego: Academic Press;
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Meyers G., Ege A., Fetzer C., Von Freyburg M., Elbers K., Carr V., Prentice H., Charleston B., Schürmann E. M. 2007; Bovine viral diarrhea virus: prevention of persistent fetal infection by a combination of two mutations affecting Erns RNase and Npro protease. J Virol 81:3327–3338 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Pichler W. J. 2006; Adverse side-effects to biological agents. Allergy 61:912–920 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Pichlmair A., Sousa C. R. E. 2007; Innate recognition of viruses. Immunity 27:370–383 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Randall R. E., Goodbourn S. 2008; Interferons and viruses: an interplay between induction, signalling, antiviral responses and virus countermeasures. J Gen Virol 89:1–47 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Ridpath J. F., Neill J. D., Frey M., Landgraf J. G. 2000; Phylogenetic, antigenic and clinical characterization of type 2 BVDV from North America. Vet Microbiol 77:145–155 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Ruggli N., Tratschin J. D., Schweizer M., McCullough K. C., Hofmann M. A., Summerfield A. 2003; Classical swine fever virus interferes with cellular antiviral defense: evidence for a novel function of Npro . J Virol 77:7645–7654 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Rümenapf T., Unger G., Strauss J. H., Thiel H.-J. 1993; Processing of the envelope glycoproteins of pestiviruses. J Virol 67:3288–3294
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Schneider R., Unger G., Stark R., Schneider-Scherzer E., Thiel H. J. 1993; Identification of a structural glycoprotein of an RNA virus as a ribonuclease. Science 261:1169–1171 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Schweizer M., Peterhans E. 2001; Noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus inhibits double-stranded RNA-induced apoptosis and interferon synthesis. J Virol 75:4692–4698 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Schweizer M., Mätzener P., Pfaffen G., Stalder H. P., Peterhans E. 2006; “Self” and “nonself” manipulation of interferon defense during persistent infection: bovine viral diarrhea virus resists alpha/beta interferon without blocking antiviral activity against unrelated viruses replicating in its host cells. J Virol 80:6926–6935 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Seago J., Hilton L., Reid E., Doceul V., Jeyatheesan J., Moganeradj K., McCauley J., Charleston B., Goodbourn S. 2007; The Npro product of classical swine fever virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus uses a conserved mechanism to target interferon regulatory factor-3. J Gen Virol 88:3002–3006 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Thiel H.-J., Plagemann P. G. W., Moennig V. 1996; Pestiviruses. In Fields Virology , 3rd edn. pp 1059–1073Edited by Fields B. N., Knipe D. M., Howley P. M. Philadelphia & New York: Lippincott–Raven Publishers;
    [Google Scholar]
  28. von Wussow P., Jakschies D., Hochkeppel H.-K., Fibich C., Penner L., Deicher H. 1990; The human intracellular Mx-homologous protein is specifically induced by type I interferons. Eur J Immunol 20:2015–2019 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.2008/003749-0
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.2008/003749-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error