1887

Abstract

The e antigen (eAg) of duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) is a glycosylated secretory protein with a currently unknown function. We concentrated this antigen from the supernatants of persistently infected primary duck liver cell cultures by ammonium sulphate precipitation, adsorption chromatography over concanavalin A Sepharose, preparative isoelectric focusing and molecular sieve chromatography. The combined treatment of duck liver cells with DHBV eAg (DHBe) concentrate and -methyl--mannopyranoside strongly inhibited DHBV replication at infection. When DHBe was added to non-infected primary duck liver cells, it was found to be associated with liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. This binding could be inhibited by the addition of -methyl--mannopyranoside and other sugar molecules. The inhibitory effect of DHBe on infection could play a role in maintaining viral persistence.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.2008/003541-0
2008-12-01
2019-11-12
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/89/12/3016.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.2008/003541-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Bradford, M. M. ( 1976; ). A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 72, 248–254.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Breiner, K. M., Urban, S. & Schaller, H. ( 1998; ). Carboxypeptidase D (gp180), a Golgi-resident protein, functions in the attachment and entry of avian hepatitis B viruses. J Virol 72, 8098–8104.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Breiner, K. M., Schaller, H. & Knolle, P. A. ( 2001; ). Endothelial cell-mediated uptake of a hepatitis B virus: a new concept of liver targeting of hepatotropic microorganisms. Hepatology 34, 803–808.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bruns, M. & Frenzel, B. ( 1979; ). Isolation of a glycoprotein and two structural proteins of Maedi-Visna virus. Virology 97, 207–211.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bruns, M. & Maenz, C. ( 2007; ). Requirement of activation for hepatitis B virus infection. Available from Nature Precedings http://hdl.handle.net/10101/npre.2007.221.1
  6. Bruns, M., Miska, S., Chassot, S. & Will, H. ( 1998; ). Enhancement of hepatitis B virus infection by noninfectious subviral particles. J Virol 72, 1462–1468.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Buscher, M., Reiser, W., Will, H. & Schaller, H. ( 1985; ). Transcripts and the putative RNA pregenome of duck hepatitis B virus: implications for reverse transcription. Cell 40, 717–724.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Chang, C., Enders, G., Sprengel, R., Peters, N., Varmus, H. E. & Ganem, D. ( 1987; ). Expression of the precore region of an avian hepatitis B virus is not required for viral replication. J Virol 61, 3322–3325.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Cohen, B. J. & Richmond, J. E. ( 1982; ). Electron microscopy of hepatitis B core antigen synthesized in E. coli. Nature 296, 677–679.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Edwards, S. A. & Fan, H. ( 1980; ). Sequence relationship of glycosylated and unglycosylated gag polyproteins of Moloney murine leukemia virus. J Virol 35, 41–51.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Enders, G. H., Ganem, D. & Varmus, H. ( 1985; ). Mapping the major transcripts of ground squirrel hepatitis virus: the presumptive template for reverse transcriptase is terminally redundant. Cell 42, 297–308.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Fernholz, D., Wildner, G. & Will, H. ( 1993; ). Minor envelope proteins of duck hepatitis B virus are initiated at internal pre-S AUG codons but are not essential for infectivity. Virology 197, 64–73.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Franke, C., Matschl, U. & Bruns, M. ( 2007; ). Enzymatic treatment of duck hepatitis B virus: topology of the surface proteins for virions and noninfectious subviral particles. Virology 359, 126–137.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Götz, W., Reinauer, H. & Rosenbauer, K. A. ( 1990; ). Lebererkrankungen. Labordiagnostik und Epidemiologie. Darmstadt: GIT Verlag.
  15. Irie, S. & Tavassoli, M. ( 1986; ). Liver endothelium desialates ceruloplasmin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 140, 94–100.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Irving, M. G., Roll, F. J., Huang, S. & Bissell, D. M. ( 1984; ). Characterization and culture of sinusoidal endothelium from normal rat liver: lipoprotein uptake and collagen phenotype. Gastroenterology 87, 1233–1247.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Jilbert, A. R., Wu, T. T., England, J. M., Hall, P. M., Carp, N. Z., O'Connell, A. P. & Mason, W. S. ( 1992; ). Rapid resolution of duck hepatitis B virus infections occurs after massive hepatocellular involvement. J Virol 66, 1377–1388.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Kawaguchi, T., Nomura, K., Hirayama, Y. & Kitagawa, T. ( 1987; ). Establishment and characterization of a chicken hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, LMH. Cancer Res 47, 4460–4464.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Knolle, P. A., Ohl, J. & Limmer, A. ( 2000; ). Unique regulation of the hepatic immune response by a new antigen-presenting cell type: the sinusoidal endothelial cell of the liver. In Chronic Hepatitis: New Concepts of Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Treatment, pp. 74–91. Edited by H. Dienes, P. Schirmacher, C. Brechot & K. Okuda. Köln: Kluwer.
  20. Kuroki, K., Cheung, R., Marion, P. L. & Ganem, D. ( 1994; ). A cell surface protein that binds avian hepatitis B virus particles. J Virol 68, 2091–2096.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Laemmli, U. K. ( 1970; ). Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 227, 680–685.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Maenz, C., Chang, S. F., Iwanski, A. & Bruns, M. ( 2007; ). Entry of duck hepatitis B virus into primary duck liver and kidney cells after discovery of a fusogenic region within the large surface protein. J Virol 81, 5014–5023.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Milich, D. & Liang, T. J. ( 2003; ). Exploring the biological basis of hepatitis B e antigen in hepatitis B virus infection. Hepatology 38, 1075–1086.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Milich, D. R., Wolf, S. F., Hughes, J. L. & Jones, J. E. ( 1995; ). Interleukin 12 suppresses autoantibody production by reversing helper T-cell phenotype in hepatitis B e antigen transgenic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92, 6847–6851.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Milich, D. R., Chen, M. K., Hughes, J. L. & Jones, J. E. ( 1998; ). The secreted hepatitis B precore antigen can modulate the immune response to the nucleocapsid: a mechanism for persistence. J Immunol 160, 2013–2021.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Moroy, T., Etiemble, J., Trepo, C., Tiollais, P. & Buendia, M. A. ( 1985; ). Transcription of woodchuck hepatitis virus in the chronically infected liver. EMBO J 4, 1507–1514.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Netter, H.-J., Chang, S.-F. & Bruns, M. ( 2008; ). Host-range and pathogenicity of hepatitis B viruses. Future Virol 3, 83–94.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Okaji, Y., Tsuno, N. H., Kitayama, J., Saito, S., Takahashi, T., Kawai, K., Yazawa, K., Asakage, M., Tsuchiya, T. & other authors ( 2004; ). A novel method for isolation of endothelial cells and macrophages from murine tumors based on ac-LDL uptake and CD16 expression. J Immunol Methods 295, 183–193.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Ou, J. H., Laub, O. & Rutter, W. J. ( 1986; ). Hepatitis B virus gene function: the precore region targets the core antigen to cellular membranes and causes the secretion of the e antigen. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 83, 1578–1582.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Schlicht, H. J. ( 1991; ). Biosynthesis of the secretory core protein of duck hepatitis B virus: intracellular transport, proteolytic processing, and membrane expression of the precore protein. J Virol 65, 3489–3495.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Schlicht, H. J. & Schaller, H. ( 1989; ). The secretory core protein of human hepatitis B virus is expressed on the cell surface. J Virol 63, 5399–5404.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Schlicht, H. J., Salfeld, J. & Schaller, H. ( 1987; ). The duck hepatitis B virus pre-C region encodes a signal sequence which is essential for synthesis and secretion of processed core proteins but not for virus formation. J Virol 61, 3701–3709.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Schlicht, H. J., Wasenauer, G. & Kock, J. ( 1993; ). Molecular basis of the diversity of hepatitis B virus core-gene products. Arch Virol Suppl 8, 43–52.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Schneider, R., Fernholz, D., Wildner, G. & Will, H. ( 1991; ). Mechanism, kinetics, and role of duck hepatitis B virus e-antigen expression in vivo. Virology 182, 503–512.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Schwartzberg, P., Colicelli, J. & Goff, S. P. ( 1983; ). Deletion mutants of Moloney murine leukemia virus which lack glycosylated gag protein are replication competent. J Virol 46, 538–546.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Takahashi, K., Imai, M., Miyakawa, Y., Iwakiri, S. & Mayumi, M. ( 1978; ). Duality of hepatitis B e antigen in serum of persons infected with hepatitis B virus: evidence for the nonidentity of e antigen with immunoglobulins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 75, 1952–1956.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Tavassoli, M., Kishimoto, T., Soda, R., Kataoka, M. & Harjes, K. ( 1986; ). Liver endothelium mediates the uptake of iron-transferrin complex by hepatocytes. Exp Cell Res 165, 369–379.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Thio, C. L., Mosbruger, T., Astemborski, J., Greer, S., Kirk, G. D., O'Brien, S. J. & Thomas, D. L. ( 2005; ). Mannose binding lectin genotypes influence recovery from hepatitis B virus infection. J Virol 79, 9192–9196.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Tiollais, P., Pourcel, C. & Dejean, A. ( 1985; ). The hepatitis B virus. Nature 317, 489–495.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Urban, S., Schwarz, C., Marx, U. C., Zentgraf, H., Schaller, H. & Multhaup, G. ( 2000; ). Receptor recognition by a hepatitis B virus reveals a novel mode of high affinity virus-receptor interaction. EMBO J 19, 1217–1227.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Zhang, Y. Y. & Summers, J. ( 1999; ). Enrichment of a precore-minus mutant of duck hepatitis B virus in experimental mixed infections. J Virol 73, 3616–3622.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.2008/003541-0
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.2008/003541-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error