1887

Abstract

Various G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have the potential to work as co-receptors for human and simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV). HIV/SIV co-receptors have several tyrosines in their extracellular N-terminal region (NTR) as a common feature. However, the domain structure of the NTR that is critical for GPCRs to have co-receptor activity has not been identified. Comparative studies of different HIV/SIV co-receptors are an effective way to clarify the domain. These studies have been carried out only for the major co-receptors, CCR5 and CXCR4. A chemokine receptor, D6, has been shown to mediate infection of astrocytes with HIV-1. Recently, it was also found that an orphan GPCR, GPR1, and a formyl peptide receptor, FPRL1, work as potent HIV/SIV co-receptors in addition to CCR5 and CXCR4. To elucidate more about the domain of the NTR critical for HIV/SIV co-receptor activity, this study analysed the effects of mutations in the NTR on the co-receptor activity of D6, FPRL1 and GPR1 in addition to CCR5. The results identified a number of tyrosines that are indispensable for the activity of these co-receptors. The number and positions of those tyrosines varied among co-receptors and among HIV-1 strains. Moreover, it was found that a small domain of a few amino acids containing a tyrosine is critical for the co-receptor activity of GPR1. These findings will be useful in elucidating the mechanism that allows GPCRs to have the potential to act as HIV/SIV co-receptors.

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2008-12-01
2021-10-17
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