1887

Abstract

To investigate the genetic changes in hepatitis E virus (HEV) strains in the Kathmandu valley of Nepal, we compared the 412 nt sequence within open reading frame 2 of HEV among HEV isolates recovered from 16 patients in 1999, 14 patients in 2000 and 38 patients in 2002, and additional isolates recovered from 48 patients in 1997 whose nucleotide sequences have been previously published. All 116 HEV-viraemic samples were genotyped as 1 and subtyped further as 1a (=85, 73 %), 1c (=29, 25 %) and mixed infection of 1a and 1c (=2, 2 %): subtype 1c was detected only in 1997. Among the 1a isolates, nucleotide sequence identity with the representative 1a isolate of Ne131-1997 was 96·4±2·4 % (mean±SD) in 1997, 93·9±1·7 % in 1999, 92·2±1·0 % in 2000 and 91·7±0·5 % in 2002, indicating gradual diversification of HEV sequences. When phylogenetic analysis of the 87 subtype 1a isolates was performed, they further segregated into five clusters, with two predominant clusters of 1a-2 and 1a-3: the annual frequency of cluster 1a-2 isolates decreased from 63 % in 1997, to 50 % in 1999, to 7 % in 2000 and no cases in 2002; cluster 1a-3 isolates were observed in all four years and its annual frequency increased from 5 % in 1997 to 95 % in 2002. Of the remaining three clusters, cluster 1a-1 was detectable only in 1997 and clusters 1a-4 and 1a-5 emerged in 2000 and 2002, respectively. These results indicate that genetic changes and takeover of HEV strains may contribute to the genetic variability of HEV in the community.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.19571-0
2004-01-01
2020-11-27
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/85/1/vir850097.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.19571-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Arankalle V. A., Chadha M. S., Tsarev S. A., Emerson S. U., Risbud A. R., Banerjee K., Purcell R. H. 1994; Seroepidemiology of water-borne hepatitis in India and evidence for a third enterically transmitted agent. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91:3428–3432
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Clayson E. T., Innis B. L., Myint K. S. A., Narupiti S., Vaughn D. W., Giri S., Ranabhat P., Shrestha M. P. 1995a; Detection of hepatitis E virus infections among domestic swine in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal. Am J Trop Med Hyg 53:228–232
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Clayson E. T., Myint K. S. A., Snitbhan R., Vaughn D. W., Innis B. L., Chan L., Cheung P., Shrestha M. P. 1995b; Viremia, fecal shedding, and IgM and IgG responses in patients with hepatitis E. J Infect Dis 172:927–933
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Clayson E. T., Shrestha M. P., Vaughn D. W., Snitbhan R., Shrestha K. B., Longer C. F., Innis B. L. 1997; Rates of hepatitis E virus infection and disease among adolescents and adults in Kathmandu. Nepal. J Infect Dis 176:763–766
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Costa-Mattioli M., Cristina J., Romero H. 12 other authors 2002; Molecular evolution of hepatitis A virus: a new classification based on the complete VP1 protein. J Virol 76:9516–9525
    [Google Scholar]
  6. El-Newihi H. M., Alamy E. A., Reynolds T. B. 1996; Salmonella hepatitis: analysis of 27 cases and comparison with acute viral hepatitis. Hepatology 24:516–519
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Erker J. C., Desai S. M., Schlauder G. G., Dawson G. J., Mushahwar I. K. 1999; A hepatitis E virus variant from the United States: molecular characterization and transmission in cynomolgus macaques. J Gen Virol 80:681–690
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Felsenstein J. 1985; Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39:783–791
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Gouvea V., Snellings N., Cohen S. J. 7 other authors 1997; Hepatitis E virus in Nepal: similarities with the Burmese and Indian variants. Virus Res 52:87–96
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Gouvea V., Snellings N., Popek M. J., Longer C. F., Innis B. L. 1998; Hepatitis E virus: complete genome sequence and phylogenetic analysis of a Nepali isolate. Virus Res 57:21–26
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Halbur P. G., Kasorndorkbua C., Gilbert C., Guenette D., Potters M. B., Purcell R. H., Emerson S. U., Toth T. E., Meng X. J. 2001; Comparative pathogenesis of infection of pigs with hepatitis E viruses recovered from a pig and a human. J Clin Microbiol 39:918–923
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Harrison T. J. 1999; Hepatitis E virus – an update. Liver 19:171–176
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Hollinger B., Emerson S. U. 2001; Hepatitis A virus. In Fields Virology , 4th edn. pp  799–840 Edited by Knipe D. M., Howley P. M. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins;
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Ina Y. 1994; ODEN: a program package for molecular evolutionary analysis and database search of DNA and amino acid sequences. Comput Appl Biosci 10:11–12
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Kane M. A., Bradley D. W., Shrestha S. M., Maynard J. E., Cook E. H., Mishra R. P., Joshi D. D. 1984; Epidemic non-A, non-B hepatitis in Nepal: recovery of a possible etiologic agent and transmission studies in marmosets. J Am Med Assoc 252:3140–3145
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Meng X. J. 2000; Novel strains of hepatitis E virus identified from humans and other animal species: is hepatitis E a zoonosis?. J Hepatol 33:842–845
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Meng X. J., Purcell R. H., Halbur P. G., Lehman J. R., Webb D. M., Tsareva T. S., Haynes J. S., Thacker B. J., Emerson S. U. 1997; A novel virus in swine is closely related to the human hepatitis E virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:9860–9865
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Meng X. J., Halbur P. G., Shapiro M. S., Govindarajan S., Bruna J. D., Mushahwar I. K., Purcell R. H., Emerson S. U. 1998; Genetic and experimental evidence for cross-species infection by swine hepatitis E virus. J Virol 72:9714–9721
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Mizuo H., Suzuki K., Takikawa Y. 8 other authors 2002; Polyphyletic strains of hepatitis E virus are responsible for sporadic cases of acute hepatitis in Japan. J Clin Microbiol 40:3209–3218
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Okamoto H., Mishiro S., Tokita H., Tsuda F., Miyakawa Y., Mayumi M. 1994; Superinfection of chimpanzees carrying hepatitis C virus of genotype II/1b with that of genotype III/2a or I/1a. Hepatology 20:1131–1136
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Okamoto H., Takahashi M., Nishizawa T., Fukai K., Muramatsu U., Yoshikawa A. 2001; Analysis of the complete genome of indigenous swine hepatitis E virus isolated in Japan. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 289:929–936
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Page R. D. M. 1996; treeview: an application to display phylogenetic trees on personal computers. Comput Appl Biosci 12:357–358
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Purcell R. H., Emerson S. U. 2001; Hepatitis E virus. In Fields Virology , 4th edn. pp  3051–3061 Edited by Knipe D. M., Howley P. M. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins;
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Reyes G. R., Purdy M. A., Kim J. P., Luk K. C., Young L. M., Fry K. E., Bradley D. W. 1990; Isolation of a cDNA from the virus responsible for enterically transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis. Science 247:1335–1339
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Saitou N., Nei M. 1987; The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4:406–425
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Schlauder G. G., Mushahwar I. K. 2001; Genetic heterogeneity of hepatitis E virus. J Med Virol 65:282–292
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Shrestha S. M. 1987; Acute sporadic viral hepatitis in Nepal. Trop Gastroenterol 8:99–105
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Shrestha S. M. 1991; Enteric non-A, non-B hepatitis in Nepal: clinical and epidemiological observations. In Viral Hepatitis C, D and E pp  265–275 Edited by Shikata T., Purcell R. H., Uchida T. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica;
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Shrestha M. S., Shrestha S., Tsuda F., Nishizawa T., Gotanda Y., Takeda N., Okamoto H. 2003; Molecular investigation of hepatitis E virus infection in patients with acute hepatitis in Kathmandu. Nepal. J Med Virol 69:207–214
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Smith J. L. 2001; A review of hepatitis E virus. J Food Prot 64:572–586
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Takahashi M., Nishizawa T., Miyajima H., Gotanda Y., Iita T., Tsuda F., Okamoto H. 2003; Swine hepatitis E virus strains in Japan form four phylogenetic clusters comparable with those of Japanese isolates of human hepatitis E virus. J Gen Virol 84:851–862
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Tam A. W., Smith M. M., Guerra M. E., Huang C. C., Bradley D. W., Fry K. E., Reyes G. R. 1991; Hepatitis E virus (HEV): molecular cloning and sequencing of the full-length viral genome. Virology 185:120–131
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Tei S., Kitajima N., Takahashi K., Mishiro S. 2003; Zoonotic transmission of hepatitis E virus from deer to human beings. Lancet 362:371–373
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Thompson J. D., Higgins D. G., Gibson T. J. 1994; clustal w: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res 22:4673–4680
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Wang Y., Ling R., Erker J. C., Zhang H., Li H., Desai S., Mushahwar I. K., Harrison T. J. 1999; A divergent genotype of hepatitis E virus in Chinese patients with acute hepatitis. J Gen Virol 80:169–177
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.19571-0
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.19571-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error