1887

Abstract

Because (RHDV) is highly pathogenic for rabbits, farmers illegally introduced it as a bio-control agent onto New Zealand farms in 1997. The virus was dispersed rapidly, initially causing high fatality rates in rabbits. Nevertheless, many survived and these surviving rabbits have been investigated for evidence of infection by RHDV. Livers from healthy rabbits contained RHDV-specific RNA, as shown by nested RT-PCR sequencing. The sequences of the viral capsids were related closely to the released Czech strain of RHDV, although the sequence from one rabbit was related most closely to a Spanish strain of RHDV. Phylogenetic analysis of the capsid sequences of 38 samples implied that there have been at least two introductions of the Czech virus into New Zealand, probably corresponding firstly to the original illegal introduction by farmers and secondly to the introduction of the same virus under governmental control. Genomic length sequence of two samples was obtained, suggesting that they may have retained the potential to be infectious, although this has not yet been demonstrated. The detection of genomic-length RNA in the liver of healthy rabbits suggests that even though a highly virulent virus was introduced into New Zealand, it rapidly established persistent or latent infections in a proportion of rabbits. This might account for their ability to survive in the face of virulent released virus. Moreover, the co-circulation of other strains of RHDV in the same rabbit population, such as the Spanish strain, might also impact on their susceptibility to the bio-control agent.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.19213-0
2003-11-01
2020-07-05
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/84/11/vir843079.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.19213-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Alonso C., Oviedo J. M., Martin-Alonso J. M., Diaz E., Boga J. A., Parra F.. 1998; Programmed cell death in the pathogenesis of rabbit hemorrhagic disease. Arch Virol143:321–332
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Asgari S., Hardy J. R., Sinclair R. G., Cooke B. D.. 1998; Field evidence for mechanical transmission of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) by flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) among wild rabbits in Australia. Virus Res54:123–132
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Asgari S., Hardy J. R., Cooke B. D.. 1999; Sequence analysis of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) in Australia: alterations after its release. Arch Virol144:135–145
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Boga J. A., Marin M. S., Casais R., Prieto M., Parra F.. 1992; In vitro translation of a subgenomic mRNA from purified virions of the Spanish field isolate AST/89 of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV). Virus Res26:33–40
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Capucci L., Fusi P., Lavazza A., Pacciarini M. L., Rossi C.. 1996; Detection and preliminary characterization of a new rabbit calicivirus related to rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus but nonpathogenic. J Virol70:8614–8623
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Capucci L., Fallacara F., Grazioli S., Lavazza A., Pacciarini M. L., Brocchi E.. 1998; A further step in the evolution of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus: the appearance of the first consistent antigenic variant. Virus Res58:115–126
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Chasey D., Trout R. C., Sharp G., Edwards S.. 1997; Seroepidemiology of RHD in wild rabbits in the UK and susceptibility to infection. In First International Symposium on Caliciviruses pp 156–162 Edited by Chasey D., Gaskell R. M., Clarke I. N.. European Society for Veterinary Virology;
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Cooke B. D.. 2002; Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: field epidemiology and the management of wild rabbit populations. Rev Sci Tech21:347–358
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Cooke B. D., Robinson A. J., Merchant J. C., Nardin A., Capucci L.. 2000; Use of ELISAs in field studies of rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) in Australia. Epidemiol Infect124:563–576
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Gould A. R., Kattenbelt J. A., Lenghaus C., Morrissy C., Chamberlain T., Collins B. J., Westbury H. A.. 1997; The complete nucleotide sequence of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (Czech strain V351): use of the polymerase chain reaction to detect replication in Australian vertebrates and analysis of viral population sequence variation. Virus Res47:7–17
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Jung J. Y., Lee B. J., Tai J. H., Park J. H., Lee Y. S.. 2000; Apoptosis in rabbit haemorrhagic disease. J Comp Pathol123:135–140
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Kovaliski J.. 1998; Monitoring the spread of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus as a new biological agent for control of wild European rabbits in Australia. J Wildl Dis34:421–428
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Laurent S., Vautherot J. F., Le Gall G., Madelaine M. F., Rasschaert D.. 1997; Structural, antigenic and immunogenic relationships between European brown hare syndrome virus and rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus. J Gen Virol78:2803–2811
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Le Gall G., Huguet S., Vende P., Vautherot J. F., Rasschaert D.. 1996; European brown hare syndrome virus: molecular cloning and sequencing of the genome. J Gen Virol77:1693–1697
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Liu S. J., Xue H. P., Pu B. Q., Quian N. H.. 1984; A new viral disease in rabbits. Anim Husb Vet Med16:253–255 (in Chinese
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Lugton I. W.. 1999; A cross-sectional study of risk factors affecting the outcome of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus releases in New South Wales. Aust Vet J77:322–328
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Mackenzie J. M., Jones M. K., Westaway E. G.. 1999; Markers for trans -Golgi membranes and the intermediate compartment localize to induced membranes with distinct replication functions in flavivirus-infected cells. J Virol73:9555–9567
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Marin M. S., Martin-Alonso J. M., Perez Ordoyo Garcia L. I.. 7 other authors 1995; Immunogenic properties of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus structural protein VP60 expressed by a recombinant baculovirus: an efficient vaccine. Virus Res39:119–128
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Meyers G., Wirblich C., Thiel H. J.. 1991; Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus: molecular cloning and nucleotide sequencing of a calicivirus genome. Virology184:664–676
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Moss S. R., Turner S. L., Trout R. C., White P. J., Hudson P. J., Desai A., Armesto M., Forrester N. L., Gould E. A.. 2002; Molecular epidemiology of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus. J Gen Virol83:2461–2467
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Motha M. X. J., Clark R. G.. 1998; Confirmation of rabbit haemorrhagic disease in wild New Zealand rabbits using the ELISA. N Z Vet J46:83–84
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Nowotny N., Bascunana C. R., Ballagi-Pordany A., Gavier-Widen D., Uhlen M., Belak S.. 1997; Phylogenetic analysis of rabbit haemorrhagic disease and European brown hare syndrome viruses by comparison of sequences from the capsid protein gene. Arch Virol142:657–673
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Ohlinger V. F., Haas B., Meyers G., Weiland F., Thiel H. J.. 1990; Identification and characterization of the virus causing rabbit hemorrhagic disease. J Virol64:3331–3336
    [Google Scholar]
  24. O'Keefe J. S., Tempero J. E., Atkinsona P. H., Pacciarini M. L., Fallacara F., Horner G., Motha M. X. J.. 1998; Typing of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus from New Zealand wild rabbits. N Z Vet J46:41–42
    [Google Scholar]
  25. O'Keefe J. S., Tempero J. E., Motha M. X., Hansen M. F., Atkinsona P. H.. 1999; Serology of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus in wild rabbits before and after release of the virus in New Zealand. Vet Microbiol66:29–40
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Parkes J. P., Norbury G. L., Heyward R. P., Sullivan G.. 2002; Epidemiology of rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) in the South Island, New Zealand, 1997–2001. Wildl Res29:543–555
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Posada D. C., Crandall K. A.. 1998; modeltest: testing the model of DNA substitution. Bioinformatics14:817–818
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Ramiro-Ibanez F., Martin-Alonso J. M., Garcia Palencia P., Parra F., Alonso C.. 1999; Macrophage tropism of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus is associated with vascular pathology. Virus Res60:21–28
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Rasschaert D., Huguet S., Madelaine M. F., Vautherot J. F.. 1995; Sequence and genomic organization of a rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus isolated from a wild rabbit. Virus Genes9:121–132
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Rodak L., Granatova M., Valicek L., Smid B., Vesely T., Nevorankova Z.. 1990; Monoclonal antibodies to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus and their use in the diagnosis of infection. J Gen Virol71:2593–2598
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Sandell P. R.. 2002; Implications of rabbit haemorrhagic disease for the short-term recover of semi-arid woodland communities in north-west Victoria. Wildl Res29:591–598
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Swofford D.. 2000; paup*: Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (* and other methods), version 4 Sinauer Associates; Sunderland, MA, USA:
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Takamatsu H., Mellor P. S., Mertens P. P. C., Kirkham P. A., Burroughs J. N., Parkhouse R. M. E.. 2003; A possible overwintering mechanism for bluetongue virus in the absence of the insect vector. J Gen Virol84:227–235
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Teifke J. P., Reimann I., Schirrmeier H.. 2002; Subacute liver necrosis after experimental infection with rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV). J Comp Pathol126:231–234
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Thompson J., Clark G.. 1997; Rabbit calicivirus now established in New Zealand. Surveillance24:5–6
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Trout R. C., Chasey D., Sharp G.. 1997; Seroepidemiology of rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) in wild rabbits ( Oryctolagus cuniculus ) in the United Kingdom. J Zool (Lond)243:846–853
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Westaway E. G., Khromykh A. A., Mackenzie J. M.. 1999; Nascent flavivirus RNA colocalized in situ with double-stranded RNA in stable replication complexes. Virology258:108–117
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Wirblich C., Meyers G., Ohlinger V. F., Capucci L., Eskens U., Haas B., Thiel H. J.. 1994; European brown hare syndrome virus: relationship to rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus and other caliciviruses. J Virol68:5164–5173
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Zheng T., Napier A. M., Parkes J. P., O'Keefe J. S., Atkinsona P. H.. 2002; Detection of RNA of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus from New Zealand wild rabbits. Wildl Res29:683–688
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.19213-0
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.19213-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error